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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Medical Emergency
condition or circumstance requiring immediate attention for someone that is injured or suddenly becomes ill
one of most important ways to prevent medical emergency
know your patient
Who is responsible for paitent updating medical history when patient enters office
business assistant
Most medical emergencies in dental office are caused by
stress of ones daily life & apprehension of going to dentist
Who is responsible for patient safety while in dental office?
who's responsible for providing emergency care til more qualified personell arrive
dentist & staff members
Emergency First Aid Protocol must
be established & routinely practiced
Successful Management of med emergencies
require preparedness, prompt recognition & effective treatment
Ongoing Observation
important part of emergency preparedness
To prevent stresses and complications
every staff member should know & practice their role
Front desk staff
call emergency services 911, stay on line til help arrives
Clinical assistant or hygienist
retrieve O2& emergency drug kit..prepare for use
Dentist, clinical assistant or hygienist
remain w patient to assist with assessment & basic life support
Additional dental team
respond to needs of other patients
what should be created in dental office monthly
mock emergency
Emergency telephone numbers
posted next to each telephone in office
Maintain current
telephone list
emergency medical service
Emergency list should include
EMS personnel, local police, firefighters
most places all 3 services can be reach by
2 important factors to preparedness
*know time it takes for EMS to reach dental office
*life support capabilities available on arrival of EMS
Professionals able to offer life support needed while waiting for EMS
list including Hospital, Physicians & Oral Surgeons
CANNOT be Overemphasized
ongoing observation of patient in reception, dental chair & when leaving office
what patient tells you he is feeling, or experiencing...ie 'I feel dizzy"
what you observe in a patient..ie skin colour change or increased rapid breathing
Signs are more reliable than symptoms
True: because signs are actually observed
Dental team member must have these credentials
*ability to assess & record vitals signs
*Heimlich Maneuver
*operate a deffibulator
Basic Life Support
*recognize emergency
*activate EMS
*early hi performance of CPR
*rapid defibrillation
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
emergency when patient is NOT breathing & heart is NOT beating
A-B-C--airway --breathing--chest compressions CHANGED TO
C-A-B--chest compressions--airway--breathing
CPR Compressions to Ventilation Ratio
30 chest compressions to 2 ventilations
Cells of the brain irreversibly damaged after
4-6 minutes without oxygen
sudden spasm or movement from accidental aspiration
Severity of Choking depends on
*how tightly item is lodged
*how much airway is blocked
3 most preventive ways of preventing airway obstruction
*high velocity suction
*dental dam
*palcement of throat pack
Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) 80-90% of cases
abnormal chaotic heart rhythm preventing heart from pumping
If defibrillation is started within first 5 mins of cardiac arrest, chance of survival is 50%
True: sooner defibrillation begins, greater survival chance for victim
Chance os survival is reduced by 7-10% for each minute passed
True: after 10 mins very little chance of survival
AED--Automated External Defibrillator
advanced computer microprocessor assessing patients cardiac rhythm& id's any rhythm for which a shock is indicated
*monitors pt heart rhythm
*distinguishes VF analysis
*automatically defibrillates if needed
Oxygen is the
most frequently used 'drug' in medical emergency
ideal resuscitation of an unconscious patient
100% oxygen
Oxygen Cylinder is Always Colour Coded
Oxygen use
Respiratory Distress--inhaled
Respiratory Stimulant (ammonia)
Epinephrine use (EpiPen)
Allergic Reaction--IM,IV,SC
Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat)
Albuterol (Ventolin)
Bronchospams w asthma--inhaled
Diazepam (Valium)
Glucose (OJ,sugar,icing)
Pain & Anxiety--IM,IV
Methoxamaine (Vasoxyl)
Blood Pressure--IM, IV
Hydrocortisone (Solu-Cortef)
severe allergic reaction--IM, IV
Atropine (Atropair)
state of unresponsiveness to sensory stimulation
Altered Consciousness
patient conscious but acting strangely
Respiratory Distress
conscious patient breathing difficultly
uncontrolled skeletal muscle contractions
Chest Pain
pain in chest of conscious patient
Most emergencies tend to occur
during or immediately after local anesthesia is administered
types of procedure during med emergency most frequent
*tooth extraction & * endo treatment
Syncope aka Fainting (Signs&Symptoms)
*rapid heart rate
*pale skin
*lower B.P.
Postural Hypertension aka orthostatic hypertension
level of altered consciousness that may lead to unconsciousness
Postural Hypertension Signs & Symptoms
*lower blood pressure
*altered state of consciousness
Pregnant Patient dizzy or light headed in supine position
pressure of enlarged uterus on abdominal veins
Angina (severe chest pain)
heart muscle is deprived of adequate oxygen
Angina Distingtion
*pain lasts 3-8 minutes
*pain relieved by nitroglycerin
*angina specified in chart
*patient carries form of nitroglycerin
*even if history of angina, pt could still have heart attack
Angina Signs & Symptoms
*tightness sensation in chest
*pain radiates to left shoulder
*pain radiates to left side of face, jaw & teeth
Acute Myocardial Infraction aka Heart Attack
muscles of heart are damaged due to insufficient oxygen supply
Heart Attack Signs & Symptoms
*chest pain
*pain in left arm,jaw, & teeth
*shortness of breath
*nausea & vomiting
*pressure, aching burning felling of indigestion
Cerebrovascular Accident aka Stroke
interruption of blood flow to brain
Stroke Sign & Symptoms
*speech problems
*vision problems
*possible seizure
*difficulty swallowing
*headache & unconsciousness
Hyperventilation (from stress&anxiety)
increase in frequency or depth (or both) of respiration....intake too much oxygen
Hyperventilation Signs & Symptoms
*rapid shallow breathing
*tightness in chest
*rapid heartbeat
*lump in throat & panic stricken
pulmonary disorder characterized by attacks of sudden onset ...airway narrows...difficult breathing,coughing,wheezing sound
Patients with Asthma usually carry
an Inhaler containing medication (bronchodilator) to relieve first symptoms of an attack
Allergy aka
Altered state of reactivity that occurs in body tissues in response to specific antigens
substance that causes an immune response through the production of antibodies
immunoglobulins produced by lymphoid tissue in response to a foreign substance
substance that causes allergy ie pollen
Particular increasing Dental concern
allergic reaction to Latex in gloves & dental dams
Two important factors considered with allergic reaction
*speed that symptom appears
*severity of reaction
localized allergic response is usually SLOW to to develop
mild symptoms usually include, itching, erythema & hives
skin redness caused by inflammation or infection
extreme allergic reaction, develops quickly, can be fatal---untreated patient could die within few minutes
neurologic disorder characterized by recurrent seizures....controlled with meds
Grand Mal Seizure
*temp loss of consciousness & uncontrollable convulsions, deep relaxation
4 phases of Grand Mal Seizures (10-30mis duration)
*warning 'aura' such as peculiar smell
*loss of consciousness--10-20 sec brief muscle rigidity
*muscle contractions violent or mild
*deep sleep
Petit Mal Seizure
*few seconds brief lapse in consciousness
*patient may stare off or make no movement