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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Probably the best account of the origins of selfhood is that the self comes into being at the interface between inner biological processes and _____.
the sociocultural network
Suppose that you are a research participant in a study, and a researcher asks you to work on a puzzle while sitting in front of a mirror. He also mentions that your performance will be videotaped. Given these two pieces of information, you would be wise to suspect that the researcher is trying to increase
Social psychologists generally refer to two types of self-awareness. They are
public self-awareness and private self-awareness
Self-awareness is typically unpleasant because people tend to _____.
compare themselves against high standards
Research has shown that children are less likely to steal Halloween candy if there is a big mirror in front of them than if there is no mirror. This finding illustrates the fact that
high self-awareness tends to increase moral behavior.
Social psychologists have found that there is usually a very good match between
people's self-concepts and people's perceptions of what others think of them.
Introspection refers to the process by which a person
examines the contents of his or her mind and mental states.
Research has shown that men tend to like cars more when car ads feature sexy women than when they don't. Furthermore, men _____ aware that they like the cars more, _____ aware that the sexy women probably influenced their opinion.
are, but are not
Jetta wonders how she is doing in her class. At first, she thinks she is doing well because she is getting a “B”. Then she finds out that nearly every other person in the class is getting an “A” and she feels less happy. The theory of_____explains why Jetta feels less happy once she finds out how others are doing in the class, too.
social comparison
Terra is a really good faculty member. She works hard and gets good evaluations and raises she is happy with from her department chair. She finds out, though, that the other faculty members in her department get better evaluations and higher raises than she does. According to Social Comparison Theory, when Terra compares her evaluations and raises to her peers in her department, she is making a(n)
upward social comparison.
Sally lives in a middle class neighborhood. It really isn’t anything special, but most of Sally’s friends live in smaller homes in lower class neighborhoods, so Sally thinks of herself as well-off. When Sally compares her home to the homes of her friends, she is making a(n)
downward social comparison.
Doing an activity for its own sake refers to
intrinsic motivation.
The overjustification effect occurs when
people are extrinsically rewarded for something they intrinsically enjoy doing.
The consistency motive is sometimes also called
the self-verification motive.
Horatio is preparing to take the LSAT. He has been taking practice exams based on actual past LSATs. When practicing, he observes strict time limits and never cheats. He tries to simulate what the actual test-taking experience will be like. This way, he can have a reasonably good sense of what kind of score he will get when he takes the LSAT for real. Horatio is apparently driven by a very strong
appraisal motive.
Even though she has taken Spanish courses for years and is almost fluent, Ann just enrolled in Spanish I. Why? She loves the feeling of being the smartest person in the room, and loves to get scores of 100%. Ann is apparently driven by a rather strong
self-enhancement motive.
Vanessa has an important presentation coming up at work, but she fears that she will do a poor job. The week before the presentation, she claims that she is feeling under the weather; she leaves work early almost every day and barely practices her presentation at all. Even though she may not realize what she is doing, Vanessa is setting herself up so that she will have an "excuse" in case the presentation does not go well. Social psychologists refer to this pattern of behavior as
The endowment effect refers to the tendency for people
to regard items that they own as more valuable and desirable than they really are.
Research suggests that the most effective way to change the self-concept is by
changing the social environment.
Since about the 1970s, it appears that self-esteem
has been increasing (for everyone).
Mental tricks that people use to help themselves believe things that are false are called
self-deception strategies.
The tendency for people to take credit for their successes but blame failures on other people or on outside circumstances is known as
the actor-observer effect.
Compared to people with low self-esteem, people with high self-esteem tend to
think they are smarter and earn better academic grades, but have the same IQ scores
When social psychologists use the term "narcissism", they are referring to
excessive self-love and a selfish orientation
Research on bullies and bullying suggests that most of the perpetrators have high self-esteem, while most of the victims _____ self-esteem.
have low