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33 Cards in this Set

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Igneous Rock

derived from magma


originated in the asthenosphere at about 100 km.

Principal component is silicate anion, magma commonly called " silicate Melt"

Magma vs Lava

Magma is below the earth, when magma is exposed, called Lava

Factors that determine type of Igneous Rock

-Cooling rate of magma (determines crystal size)

-Chemical Composition of magma

Why does magma move to the surface of the earth?

Magma is less dense than the crust, so it rises due to buoyancy.

-gas propulsion and hydrostatic pressure help


Igneous rock with mineral crystals, but they are not visible to the naked eye/hand lens.

Example: Basalt, Andesite, Rhyolite


Igneous rock with mineral crystals clearly visible

Example: Granite, Gabbro


Igneous rock with extra large mineral crystals, more than 4 mm

Example: Pegmatitic Granite


Igneous rocks that have two distinctly different sizes of crystals present.

Example: Porphyritic Granite


Igneous rock with porous texture due to entrapped gas bubbles

Example: Pumice, vesicular basalt.


Igneous rock with rough, cinder-like texture. May be porous. Frothy.

Example: Scoria, Volcanic breccia


Intrusive Igneous rock.

Formed when magma cuts across existing rock beds. Vertical, tubular



Intrusive igneous rock.

sheet-like horizontal intrusions.

Follow the lineation of host rock - concordant.

Formed by lifting the overburden, so tend to occur at shallow depth


Intrusive Igneous rock

huge mass of igneous rock that invades a sequence of existing rocks.

Usually granite.

Discordant, since it cuts across existing rock.


intrusive body of magma that causes overlying sedimentary beds to bulge upwards

Extrusive igneous rock

-flows (Aa lava [rough] or panahoe lava [smooth]

-Volcanoes/Calderas (a large crate-like depression that form around a volcanic vent)

Clastic Rock

formed from rock fragments.

Non-Clastic Rock

Rocks formed by chemical precipitation, evaporation, Flocculation

Example: Limestone (from chemically precipitated calcium carbonate)


low temperature rock formation. Occurs for both clastic and non clastic sedimentary rocks.

-Burial (1000-2000m)


-Cementing Agents

-Pressure Solution

Diagenesis turns the follow into what sedimentary rocks:

1. Cobbles

2 Gravel

3 Sand

4 Silt

5 Silt/mud/Clay
6 Carbonate-rich ooze

1 Fanglomerate

2 Conglomerate (round)/Breccia (angular)

3 Sandstone

4 Siltstone

5 Mudstone (silt/clay)/Shale (mostly clay size, fissile)

6 Limestone

Where does Chert usually occur

a non clastic sedimentary rock that occurs as impurities within beds of limestone and dolomite.

How is Gypsum formed?

forms from seawater/lake basins by evaporation and concentration of minerals

What events cause sedimentary rocks to exhibit cross-bedding?

deposited by moving water or wind currents.

Metamorphic rock

adding elevated pressure, temperature, or chemical fluid to existing rock.

Regional Metamorphism

Two tectonic plates are colliding causing high pressure or high temperature. Causes folliation

Contact Metamorphism

Occurs when an intrusion of igneous magma heats up the surrounding rocks.

Examples: hornfels, shale, marble.

Metamorphic series of sandstone from in increasing metamorphism

sandstone -> Quartzite

Metamorphic series of Limestone from in increasing metamorphism

Limestone-> Marble

Metamorphic series of Shale from in increasing metamorphism

shale -> slate (argillite) -> Phylite -> mica schist -> Gneiss -> Migmatite -> Granite

Metamorphic series of Basalt-Gabbrofrom in increasing metamorphism

Basalt-Gabbro -> Greenschist -> Amphibolite -> Anorthosite/Granite

Metamorphic series of sedimentary rock from in increasing metamorphism

sedimentary rock -> hornfels

Usual rock of veins

quartz or calcite


sheet-like intrusion into existing rock. Looks like vein, but is filled with granite