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20 Cards in this Set

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Federalism
A way of organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over the same land and people. It is a system of shared power between units of government.
Unitary Governments
A way of organizing a nation so that all power resides in the central government. Most national governments today are unitary governments.
Intergovernmental Relations
The workings of the federal system-the entire set of interactions among national, state, and local governments, including regulations, transfers of funds, and sharing of information.
Supremacy Clause
The clause in Article 6 of the Constitution that makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws as long as the national government is acting within it's constitutional limits.
Tenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment stating, " The Powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, neither prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
McCulloch v. Maryland
An 1819 Supreme Court decision that established the supremacy of the national government over state governments . The court, led by Chief Justice John Marshall, held that Congress had certain implied powers in addition to the powers enumerated in the Constitution.
Enumerated Powers
Powers of the federal Government that are specifically addressed in the Constitution; for Congress, including the powers listed in Article 1, Section 8, for example, to coin money and regulate its value and impose taxes.
Implied Powers
Powers of the federal government that go beyond those enumerated in the Constitution, in accordance with the statement in the Constitution that Congress has the power to " make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution" the powers enumerated in Article 1.
Elastic Clause
The final paragraph of Article 1, Section 8, of the Constitution, which authorizes Congress to pass all laws "necessary and proper" to carry out the enumerated powers.
Gibbons v. Ogden
A landmark case detected in 1824 in which the Supreme Court interpreted very broadly the clause in Article 1, Section 8.. of the Constitution giving Congress the power to regulate interstate commerce, as encompassing, virtually every form of commercial activity.
Full Faith and Credit
A clause in Article 4 of the Constitution requiring each state to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of all other states.
Extradition
A legal process whereby a state surrenders a person charges with a crime to the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.
Privileges and Immunities
The provision of the Constitution according citizens of each state the privileges of cozens of other states.
Cooperative Federalism
A system of government in which powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government.
Devolution
Transferring responsibility for policies from the federal government to state and local government.
Fiscal Federalism
The pattern of spending, taxing, and providing grants in the federal system; it is the cornerstone of the national government's relations with state and local governments.
Categorical Grants
Federal grants that can be used only for specific purposes, or "categories," of state and local spending. They come with strings attached, such as nondiscrimination provisions.
Project Grants
Federal categorical grant given for specific purposes and awarded on the basis of merits of applications.
Formula Grants
Federal categorical grants distributed according to a formula specified in legislation or in administrative regulations.
Block Grants
Federal grants given more or less automatically to states or communities to support broad programs in areas such as community development and social services.