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46 Cards in this Set

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Anabolic actions of growth hormone

Increases akin acid uptake by cells

Increases protein synthesis by cells, which increases muscle mass

Catabolic actions of growth hormone

Decreases fast stores; Lipolysis

Increases gluconeogenesis

Steps leading to protein synthesis

DNA contains information

Transcription produces mRNA

mRNA leaves nucleus and binds to ribosome.

Amino acids are carried to ribosome by tRNA

in translation, mRNA is used to determine the arrangement of amino acids in polypeptide chain

Endergonic reactions

Require energy to be added to the reactant

Exergonic reactions

Release energy

Coupled reactions

Release of energy in an Exergonic reaction drives an endergonic reaction

Oxidation and reduction reactions are always ______.

Coupled reactions

Type of reaction that removes an electron


Type of reaction that adds an electron


Two main factors that regulate enzyme activity

Temperature and ph

What effect does change in pH have on enzyme activity? Give Example

Reduces enzyme activity

Lactic acid produced during exercise

Normal body temperature

37° C

Breakdown of glycogen into glucose


3 types of fats

Fatty acids



What do triglycerides break down to and what are they?

Glycerol and fatty acids

Storage form of fat in muscle and adipose tissue

Phospholipid characteristics

Not used a energy source

Provide the structural integrity of cell membrane

Provide insulation of sheath around nerve fibers

The most common steroid? What is it needed for?


To synthesize sex hormones

Hormones that are lipid soluble

Steroid hormones

How are Non steroid hormones formed?

From proteins and admin acids

What percent of hormones are proteins?


Name the 3 types of energy systems and what type of ATP production they are.

Anaerobic ATP systems:

Immediate energy system (ATP-PCr)

Non-oxidative energy systems (fast glycolysis)

Aerobic ATP:

Oxidative energy systems (oxidative phosphorylation)

Which type of ATP production does not require O2?


The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd cellular sources of immediate energy

1st: ATP

2ND: PCr (phosphocreatine)

3rd: myokinase enzyme

Which type of exercise energy is associated with the ATP-PCr system at up to how much time?

Power: weightlifting

0 to 10 or 14 seconds

Which type of exercise is associated with fast glycolysis and for how long?

Speed: 100m run

10 to 14 to 60 seconds

Which type of exercise is associated with oxidative phosphorylation and for how long?

Endurance: 1500m run

More than 2 minutes (slow glycolysis)

2 phases of Glycolysis

Energy investment phase

Energy generation phase

How much ATP is created during the 1st phase of glycolysis?


How much ATP is produced during the 2nd phase of glycolysis?


What is the final net gain of ATP during glycolysis?


How is pyruvic acid coveted to lactic acid?

By Adding 2 H+ to pyruvic acid forms NAD and lactic acid

3 ways in which lactate is removed

70% oxidized by other tissues

20% coveted to glycogen or glucose in the liver (Cori cycle)

10% converted to amino acid

Lactate is the _____ of lactic acid.

Lactic acid is produced in _____ and disassociates into what?

Conjugate base


Lactate and H+

Aerobic ATP production occurs inside the ___ and invokes the interaction of what two metabolic pathways?


Krebs cycle and electron transport chain

Does O2 participate in the Krebs cycle?


What is used as the final hydrogen acceptor at the end of the ETC?


Acetyl-CoA, oxaloacetate and citrate all have how many carbons?




One Krebs cycle produced how many NADH, FADH, GTP, and ATP?

NADH = 3

FADH = 1

GDP = 1

ATP = 1

How many pyruvates and ATPs are formed during glycolysis?

2 and 2

ATP tally for NADH and FADH.

Nadh: 2.5 ATP


Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glucose yields ___ ATP.


Aerobic metabolism of one molecule of glycogen yields ___ ATP.


Rate limiting enzyme for ATP- PC system.

Creatine kinase

Rate limiting enzyme for glycolysis, phosphogen system.


Rate limiting enzyme for Krebs cycle

Isocitrate dehydrogenase

Rate limiting enzyme for electron transport chain.

Cytochrome oxidase