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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Merocrine: how it releases product and locations
- most glands
- Cells release their products by exocytosis
-saliva, digestive enzymes (pancreatic), sweat
Apocrine: how it releases products and locations
-Upper part of cell possibly pinches off and dies releasing -products
- Smelly sweat glands, (perhaps mammary glands?)
Holocrine: how it releases products and locations
- Whole cells die and rupture to release their products
- sebaceous glands (oil)
‘-Blast’ type cells
retain ability to divide and produce matrix (fibrobloasts, chonroblasts and osteoblasts)
‘-Cyte’ type cells
mature cells that can’t dvide or produce matrix (chondrocytes and osteocytes)
Macrophages: function
Engulf bacteria and derbis by phagocytosis
Plasma cells: function
Produce antibodies that fight against foreign substances
Mast cells: function
Produce antibodies that fight against foreign substances
Adipocytes: function
Fat cells; store fat
Ground Substance in Connective Tissue Extracellular Matrix: function and composition
- Supports cells and fibers
- Helps determine the consistency of the matrix (fluid, gel or solid)
- Contains large organic molecules
- Complex combinations of polysaccharides and proteins
Function and Types of Fibers in Connective Tissue of Extracellular Matrix
- Strengthen and support connective tissue
- Collagen
- Elastic
- Reticular
Collagen Fiber: properties
tough, resistant to pull, yet pliable (25% of fiber in body)
Elastic Fiber: properties and composition
- strong; can stretch up to 150% of relaxed length and return to original shape
- made of elastin with an outer covering of fibrillin
Reticular Fiber: properties and composition
- thin, branched fibers that form framework of organs
- made of collagen
Classification of Connective Tissues
Classification of Embryonic Connective Tissues
- Mesenchyme
- Mucous
Classification of Mature Connective Tissues
- Loose connective tissue
- Dense connective tissue
- Cartilage
- Bone
- Liquid connective tissue
Mesenchyme: structure and function
- Embryonic
- Cells are irregularly shaped
- ground substance: semifluid with reticular fibers
- gives rise to all other types of connective tissues
Mucous: structure and function
- Embryonic
- Star shaped cells
- jelly-like ground substance
- only found in umbilical cord
Loose Connective Tissues: structure and types
- Mature
- Loosely woven fibers between cells
- areolar connective tissue
- adipose tissue
- reticular tissue
Areolar: structure and function
- Loose Connective
- Cells – fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, adipocytes
- Fibers – elastic fibers, collagen fibers
- Ground substance – chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, dermatan sulfate, keratan sulfate
- Widely distributed in body – found in adipose tissue in subcutaneous layer that attaches skin to tissues and organs
Adipose: structure and function
- Loose connective
- Peripheral nuclei due to large fat storage droplet (triglycerides)
Reduces heat loss, energy storage, protection
- Found in deeper layers of skin, organ padding, yellow marrow
- Found wherever areolar c.t. is found
- White adipose tissue
- Brown adipose tissue
- Liposuction
White adipose
- a lot found in adults
Brown adipose
- a lot of mitochondria that cause brown colour
- good blood supply, generates more heat than white adipose
- good temperature regulation
- a lot found in newborns
Reticular: structure and function
- Loose connective
- Network of reticular fibers and reticular cells
- Produces supporting framework (stroma) of organs (liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow)
- Also filters blood (spleen); lymph (lymph nodes)
Dense Connective Tissues: structure and types
- More fibers, thicker and denser
- Fewer cells
- Dense regular connective tissue
- Dense irregular connective tissue
- Elastic connective tissue
Difference between ligaments and tendons
- Ligaments attach to bones
- Tendons attach to mucles
Dense Regular Connective Tissue: structure and function
- Fibers: collagen fibers in parallel bundles
- Cells: fibroblasts
- White, tough and pliable
- Withstands pulling along length of fibers (provides strong attachment)
- Tendons and ligaments
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue: structure and function
- Fibers: collagen, irregularly arranged (interwoven)
- Cells: Fibroblasts
- Tissue can resist tension from any direction
- Very tough tissue – white of eyeball, dermis of skin, periosteum
Elastic Connective Tissue: structure and function
- Dense connective tissue
- Fibers: branching elastic fibers
- Cells: fibroblasts
- Can stretch and still return to original shape
- Lung tissue, vocal cords, ligament between vertebrae
Cartilage: structure and types
- Network of fibers in rubbery ground substance
- Resilient and can endure more stress than loose or dense connective tissue
- Types of cartilage:
Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Hyaline: structure and function
- cartilage
- Bluish-shiny white ground substance with fine collagen fibers
- Chondrocytes in lacunae
- No blood vessels or nerves - repair is very slow
- Reduces friction at joints; also found on anterior ends of ribs, nose, trachea, bronchi
- Also found in embryonic and fetal skeleton
Fibrocartilage: structure and function
- Many more collagen fibers
- Strongest type of cartilage
- Found in intervertebral discs, pubic symphysis, menisci (cartilage pads in knee)
Elastic Cartilage
- Elastic fibers help maintain shape after deformations
- External ear, eustachian tubes, epiglottis
Bone (Osseous) Tissue: function and types
- Protects, provides for movement, stores minerals (calcium, phosphorus), site of blood cell formation (red marrow), stores triglycerides (yellow marrow).
- Types:
Compact bone
Spongy bone
Compact Bone: structure and function
-Osteon = lamellae (rings) of mineralized matrix:
Calcium and phosphate – provides hardness; Interwoven collagen fibers – provides strength
- Osteocytes in spaces (lacunae) in between lamellae
- Canaliculi (tiny canals) connect cell to cell
Spongy Bone: structure and function
- Sponge-like with spaces and trabeculae
trabeculae = struts of bone surrounded by red bone marrow
no osteons
-Trabeculae contain: lamallae, osteocytes, lacanae and canaliculi
Liquid Connective Tissue: Blood...structure and function
- Liquid matrix = the plasma
- Cell types = red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and cell fragments called platelets
- Provide clotting, immune functions, carry O2 and CO2
Liquid Connective Tissue: Lymph... structure and function
- Extracellular fluid transported in lymphatic vessels
- Several cell types in liquid extracellular matrix
- Contains less protein than blood plasma
- Composition of lymph differs from one part of the body to another
Membranes: structure and types
- Flat sheets of flexible tissue covering or lining a part of the body
- Epithelial membranes
- Synovial membranes
Epithelial membrane types
- Epithelial layer + connective tissue layer:
Mucous membranes
Serous membranes
Cutaneous membrane
Synovial membranes structure and function
- Connective tissue but no epithelium
- line joints
Mucous Membranes: structure and function
- Epithelial membrane
- Lines a body cavity that opens to the outside
ex. mouth, vagina, anus etc.
- Epithelial cells form a barrier to microbes
- Tight junctions between cells
- Mucous is secreted from underlying glands to keep surface moist
Serous Membranes: structure and function
- Epithelial membrane
- Simple squamous cells overlying loose CT layer
- Squamous cells secrete serous fluid
- Lines a body cavity that does not open to the outside such as chest or abdominal cavity
Cutaneous Membranes: structure and function
- Epithelial membrane
- Skin – covers entire body surface
- Made up of epidermis and dermis:
Epidermis- keratinized, stratified, squamous epethelium (protection)
Dermis – connective tissue (areolar, dense irregular)
Synovial Membranes: structure and function
- Line joint cavities of all freely movable joints
- No epithelial cells - just special cells (synoviocytes) that secrete slippery fluid (synovial fluid)
Muscle: function and types
- Elongated cells (muscle fibres) that shorten
- Provide us with motion, posture and heat
- Types of muscle:
skeletal muscle
cardiac muscle
smooth muscle
Skeletal Muscle: structure and function
- Cells are long cylinders with many peripheral nuclei
- Visible light and dark banding (looks striated)
- Voluntary or conscious control
Cardiac Muscle: structure and function
- Cells are branched cylinders with one central nuclei
- Involuntary and striated
- Attached to and communicate with each other by intercalated discs and desmosomes
Smooth Muscle: structure and function
- Spindle shaped cells with a single central nuclei
- Walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, GI tract, bladder)
- Involuntary and nonstriated
Nerve Tissue: structure and function
- Cell types:
nerve cells
neuroglial (supporting) cells
- Nerve cell structure:
nucleus and long cell processes conduct nerve signals