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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Describe the structure and function of the testes

Structure: divided into lobules with seminiferous tubules inside (where sperm are produced); interstitial cells are found in the connective tissue surrounding the seminiferous tubules and produce testosterone




Function: primary reproductive organ of the male; produces sperm and testosterone

Explain the importance of the testes location in the scrotum

the scrotum is a sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside of the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis and houses the testes


it provides an environment 3 degrees below the core body temperature which is critical for sperm production

Describe the structure of the penis

- made of an attached root and a free shaft or body that ends in the glans


- the prepuce (foreskin) covers the penis and may be slipped back to form a cuff around the glans


Internal


- corpus spongiosum (erectile tissue)


- corpora cavernosum (erectile tissue)

what is the role of the penis in the reproductive process?

its a copulatory organ designed to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract

Describe the structure of the accessory reproductive organs of the male

- seminal vesicles


- prostate gland


- bulbourthral glands

What are the sources and functions of semen

Function: alkaline to neutralize the acidic environment of the vagina; its somewhat sticky mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions that provides a transport medium for sperm




Sources:


- Testicular fluid (10%)


- Seminal gland secretions (70%)


- Prostatic secretions (20%)


- Bulbourethral gland secretions (< 1%)

Describe the phases of the male sexual response

1. Erection: enlargement and stiffening of the penis result from the engorgement of the erectile tissues with blood triggered during sexual excitement

2. Ejaculation: the propulsion of semen from the male duct system triggered by the sympathetic nervous system

Define Meiosis (meiosis I and meiosis II); compare and contrast it to mitosis

-consists of two consecutive nuclear divisions and the production of four daughter cells with half as many cells as a normal body cell




-meiosis I: reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell from 46 to 23 by separating homologous chromosomes into different cells


-meiosis II: resembles mitosis in every way, except the chromatids are separated into four cells

What are the events of spermatogenesis

Spermatogenesis = meiosis + spermiogenesis



Spermatogonia -----> primary spermatocyte --


(meiosis I)


---> secondary spermatocyte -----> spermatid --


(meiosis I) (meiosis II)


---> spermatozoa


(spermiogenesis)

What are the hormonal regulations of testicular function

- GnRH

- FSH


- LH


- Testosterone

what are the physiological effects of testosterone on the male reproductive anatomy

- synthesized from cholesterol and exerts its effects by activating specific genes to be transcribed


- induces male secondary sex characteristics


- targets accessory organs (ducts, glands, and penis), causing them to grow and assume adult size and function



out-pocket of skin that contains the testes

Scrotum

Testicular structures that produce sperm

seminiferous tubules

Male copulatory organ

penis

corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa

Erectile tissues or penis

site for sperm maturation and storage

Epididymis

seminal glands, prostate, and bulbourethral glands

accessory glands

pH of semen

Alkaline

autonomic division involved with erection

parasympathetic

cells that produce testosterone

interstitial cells

germ-line cells for the male

spermatogonia

Describe the structure of the Male Duct System

-epididymis


- ductus deferens (vas deferens)


- urethra


- ejaculatory duct


- efferent ductules

Describe the location and function of the Epididymis

a highly coiled tube that provides a place for immature sperm to mature and be expelled during ejaculation

Describe the location and function of the ductus deferens or vas deferens

carries sperm from storage sites in the epididymis, through the inguinal canal, over the bladder, and into the ejaculatory duct

Describe the location and function of the urethra in the male reproductive system

Location: terminal portion of the male duct system




Function: carries both urine and sperm to the exterior environment

Describe the location and function of the seminal vesicles

Location: lie on the posterior bladder wall




Function: their alkaline secretion accounts for 70% of the volume of semen consisting of fructose, ascorbic acid, a coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), and prostaglandins

Describe the location and function of the prostate gland

Location: encircles the urethra




Function: Responsible for producing a milky, slightly acidic fluid containing citrate, several enzymes, and prostate-specific antigen, making up about 1/3 (20%) of the semen

Describe the location and function of the bulbourethral glands

Location: in urogential diaphragm




Function:produce a thick, clear mucus prior to ejaculation that neutralizes any acidic urine in the urethra

Within a few minutes of ejaculation, semen _______; it should __________ after 15-30 minutes

Coagulate (clot); re-liquify

Semen Quantity:




- Normal ejaculate: _____


- ___ Sperm total

2-5 ml (about 1 teaspoon); >60 million

Semen Quality:




- "SPERM - rule of ____"


- > 60% ______


- > 60% ______


- pH ______

60's; motility; normal shape; 7.2

GnRH

Released by the hypothalamus and controls the release of the anterior pituitary hormones: FSH and LH

FSH

indirectly stimulates spermatogenesis

LH

Stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone

Testosterone

inhibits hypothalamic release of GnRH and acts directly on the anterior pituitary gland to inhibit gonadotropin release

Spermatocytogenesis

Mitotic activity of spermatogonia to generate primary spermatocytes



Meiosis

the special process of cell division that generates haploid spermatids

Spermiogenesis

Maturation of spermatids into spermatozoa

males make up to ______ sperm per _______

2,000; second

what are the sertoli cells functions (6)

1. physical and metabolic support for spermatogenic cells


2. form blood-testis barrier through tight junctions


3. secrete hormones


4. phagocytize degenerating spermatocytes


5. phagocytize excess cytoplasm


6. control release of sperm



what are the five parts of the male sex act

1. erection (parasympathetic)


2. lubrication (parasympathetic)


3. emission (sympathetic)


4. ejaculation (spinal reflex)


5. resolution (or refractory period)

whats the male homologues for the female clitoris

Penis

whats the male homologues for the female labia majora

scrotum

whats the male homologues for the female greater vestibular glands

bulbourethral glands

whats the male homologues for the female paraurethral glands

prostate