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55 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
A serous membrane that extends from the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver
Lesser omentum
The starch digesting enzymes of the saliva and pancreatic juice are called
activities of different regions of the digestive tract are coordinated with each other through the ____ nerve plexus between two layers of the muscularis externa
this gland is located halfway along the mandible bone, just deep to the mylohyoid muscle and empties into the mouth near the lower central incisors
the tissue that constitutes most of the bulk of a tooth
tissue layers of the digestive tract from the lumen to external surface
lamina propria, muscularis mucosae, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa
where is the swallowing center located?
the brainstem
cholesterol can be ____ without being _____
absorbed; digested
most of the GI tract is composed of a ____ epithelium
simple columnar
the oral cavity through the esophagus and lower anal canal are composed of a ____ epithelium
nonkeratonized stratified squamous
this tissue layer consists of a thick layer of loose CT containing blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, a nerve plexus, and in some places, glands that secrete a lubricating mucus into the lumen
tunica submucosa
the outer tunic in the oral cavity, pharynx, most of the esophagus, and the recturm is composed of a fibrous CT layer called the
the tunica mucosa contains smooth muscle called the ___, which is stimulated by the ___plexus.
muscularis mucosae; submucosal
the extension of the peritoneym that loosely covers thesmall intestine like an apron is the ___, while the extension of the peritoneum that anchors much of the large intestine is the ___.
greater omentum; mesocolon
inflammation of the greater or lesser omentum, mesentery, or mesocolon is called:
what closes off the nasopharynx when you swallow?
the tongue has a ___ epithelium and the site of the taste buds called___
nonkeratonized stratified squamous; papillae
Infants have ___ deciduous teeth
adults have ___ permanent teeth
an individual has an impacted tooth. this tooth is most likely the ___
third molar
the tooth is anchored to the alveolar bone by the ___
peridontal ligament
gingivitis is
gum inflammation
what is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults?
most of the tooth consists of a hard, yellowish tissue called
the dentin of the tooth is covered by a hard layer of calcium phosphate crystals called ___
the two living parts of the tooth are
dentin and cementum
if you were to follow a molecule of glucose from the artery outside the tooth to an odontoblast in the dentin. the pathway glucose would take is
apical foramen; root canal; pulp cavity
salivary glands produce ___, which inhibits bacterial growth
Lingual lipase and lysozymes are produced by ___ salivary glands
Mumps are often caused by a viral infection of the ___ salivary glands.
the esophagus pierces through the diaphragm at the ___, and its submucosa contains ___ glands that secrete mucus.
hiatus; esophageal
what nerve plexus controls peristalsis and other contractions of the muscularis externa
the myenteric plexus
what controls the movements of the muscularis mucosae and glandular secretion of the mucosa
the submucosal plexus
what is the term for the serous membrane that suspends the intestines from the abdominal wall?
greater omentum
which physiologic process of the digestive system truly moves a nutrient from the outside to the inside of the body?
what do vitamins, free amino acids, minerals, cholesterol, and water all have in common?
they are absorbed without being digested
3 extrinsic salivary glands
parotid, submandibular, sublingual
Do intrinsic or extrinsic secrete saliva at a relatively constant rate?
what actions prevent the pharynx from forcing food back into the mouth or nose?
1. root of to ngue blocks oral cavity
2. the soft palate rises and blocks the nasopharynx
3. epiglottis covers the opening of the layrnx and vestibular folds cover the airway
bacteria and sugars form a sticky residue on teeth called
the acids released by the buildup of plaque dissolve the mineral of ___ and ___
dentin and enamel
cavities are aka
dental caries
if not repaired, ___ may fully penetrate the dentin and spread to the pulp cavity
dental caries
what is root canal therapy
extraction of the pulp and replace it with inert material
when plaque calcifies on the tooth surface, it is called
calculus (tartar)
about 86% of people over the age of 70 have _______ and many suffer tooth loss as a result. this accounts for 80-90% of adult tooth loss.
periodontal disease
what is gastritis?
inflammation of the stomach; can lead to peptic ulcer as pepsin and hydrochloric acid erode the stomach wall
peptic ulcers occur more commonly in the ____ and occasionally the ___
duodenum and occasionally the esophagus
If untreated, peptic ulcers can..
perforate the organ and cause fatal hemorrhaging or peritonitis
Risk factors for peptic ulcers:
presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria, smoking, use of aspirin or NSAIDS
Antibiotics and pepto-bismol treatment success rate vs. Tagament
90% cure rate vs. 20-30% for Tagament. the most effective is also a lot less expensive
Gallstones, aka ____, are hard masses in the gallbladder or bile ducts
biliary calculi
_____ are usually composed of cholesterol, calcium carbonate, and bilirubin
what is cholelithiasis
formation of gallstones; commone in obese women over the age of forty and usually results from excess cholesterol
when gallstones block the flow of bile into the duodenum, they can cause:
>poor fat digestion
>impaired absorption of fat soluble vitamins