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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Anything that occupies space and has mass


The measure of the amount of matter an object contains


The smallest particle that can contain the chemical properties of an element


A substance composed of atoms that cannot be broken down into smaller components


Particles containing more than one atom


Molecules that contain more than one element

Mass number

Total number of protons and neutrons in an element


Various kinds of atoms

Radio activity decay

The spontaneous release of material from the nucleus

Half life

The time it takes for one half of the original radioactive parent atom to decay

Covalent bonds

Elements that don’t readily gain or lose electrons from compounds by sharing electrons

Ionic bonds

Attractions between oppositely changes ions

What is another name for an atom


Hydrogen bond

A weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to one atom

Polar molecule

One side is more positive than the other is negative

Surface tension

Results from cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water


Water molecules sticking together


Molecules repeal each other

Capillary action

Adhesion is water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules


A substance that contributes hydrogen ions to a solution


A substance that contributes hydroxide ions to a solution

PH scale

A way to indicate the strength of acids and bases

Is a lower pH level more acidic or basic


What does the ph scale go to and what is neutral


Chemical reaction

When atoms separate from the molecules they are a part of or re-combine with other molecules

Law conservation of matter

Matter cannot be created or destroyed it can only change form

Inorganic compound

Compounds that either do not contain the element carbon or do contain carbon but only carbon bonds to elements other than hydrogen

Organic compounds

Compounds that have carbon to carbon and carbon hydrogen bonds


Compounds composed of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms

Example of carbohydrate



Made up of long chains of nitrogen containing organic molecules called amino acids


Proteins that help control the rate of chemical reaction

Nucleic acid

Organic compounds found in all living cells


Genetic material organisms passed on to their offspring that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation


Translate the code stored in the DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins


Smaller biological molecules that do not mix with water


Highly organized living entities that consist of the four types of micro molecules and other substances in a watery solution

Electromagnetic radiation

Form of energy that includes but is not limited to visible light ultraviolet light and heat


Massless packets of energy that travel at the speed of light and to move even through the vacuum of


Unit of energy

Chemical energy

Potential energy stored in chemical bonds

First law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created nor destroyed

Second law of thermodynamics

When energy is transferred the quality of energy remains the same but it’s ability to do work diminishes

Energy efficiency

The ratio of the amount of work that is done to the total amount of energy that is introduced into the system in the first place

Energy quality

The ease with which an energy source can be used for work



Systems analysis

A person determines inputs, outputs, and changes in the system under various conditions

Steady state

Weather inputs equal output so that the system is not changing over time


The results of a process feedback into the system to change the rate of the process

Negative feedback loops

A system in response to a change by returning to its original state or at least by decreasing the rate at which the changes occurring

Positive feedback loop

Positive feedback amplifies changes and means good