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31 Cards in this Set

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What is molecular biology?

Molecular biology is the study of the chemistry and physics of the molecules that constitute living things.

What are inorganic compounds?

A simple substance that does nto contain a carbon backbone

What are organic compounds?

Organic compounds are carbon-containing compounds that are general large and complex. ( a compound consistingof a backbone made up of carbon atoms)

An Element is defined as a substance that?

An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical reactions.

Instead of writing out the name of each element a system of abbreviations or representations has been adopted which are called:

Chemical symbols

Greek is onf of the languages used for the abbreviations ofthe elements. Name two more:

English and Latin

Name four of the elements that make up 96% of themass ofthe most organisms.

Four elements that make up 96% of the mass of most organisms are: oxygen, carbon hydrogen, and nitrogen

An element found in small quantities in living organisms is called:

Trace elements

Name two items that make up the nucleaus of an atom.

Protons and neutrons

The atomic number refers to the number of _________in an atom.

Protons

An atom has six protons and eight neutrons. Its atomic number is _________________.

6

In the periodic table elements are arranged by what?

Atomic number

Isotopes differ from each other with respect to the number of:

Neutrons

Chlorine has seven electrons in its valence shell. The number of electrons it wants to gain to complete its valence shell is:

One

How many molecules are in 6H2O?

6

What does it mean when a chemical reaction is at equilibrium?

The condition of a chemical reaction when the rate of change in one direction is exactly the same as the rate of change inteh opposite direction, i.e. the concentration of the reactants and products are not changing, and the difference in free energy between reactants adn products is zero

Define a covalent bond:

Involves the sharing of electrons between atoms in a way tha results in each atom having a filled valence shell.

An atom becomes a cation if it idoes what?

Has positively charged ions

______________is the universal solvent

Water

Define adhesive.

adhesive or adhesion is the ability to stick to many other kines of substances

Define cohesion

Cohesion is when moleculs have a strong tendency to stick to one another

Why does water have a high heat of vaporization?

Because its molecules are held together by hydrogen bonds

Why does ice float?

Because of hydrogen bonding; liquid water expands as it freezes because the hydrogen bonds joing the water moelculs in the crystalline lattice keep teh molecules far enough apart to give ice a density about 10% less that the density of liquid water (Ice is less dense than water)

What causes the capillarity and surface tension?

The bond between water and hydrogen molecules which creates adhesive and cohesive forces to join together.

The cohesiveness between water molecules is due largely to:

Hydrogen bonds among the molecules

What does teh pH scale measure?

Acidity

Define an acid?

A proton donor; a substance that is a hydrogen ion (proton) donor; acids unite with bases to form salts

Looking at the pH scale in Ch. 2 name four acidic solutions?

Battery acid


Hydrochloric acid


Stomach acid


Stomach gastric juice

Looking at teh pH scale in Ch 2 name four base solutions?

Lye


Oven cleaner


Household ammonia


Bleach

What do you get if you mix an acid with a base?

Salts

An acidophilic bacterium is call this because it loves? Think about pH.

Acid