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25 Cards in this Set

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Lava flow at earth's surface with a Basaltic composition what rock type?
intrusive equivalent of basaltic. what igneous rock?
What does porphyritic texture indicate about the history of an igneous rock?
It had a two stage cooling history.
composed of two different crystal sizes.
What is the difference between Granite and Rhyiolite?
Granite is course gained(extrusive)
Rhyiolite is fine grained. (intrusive)
Relate the classification of igneous rocks to Bowens reaction series.
minerals that crystallize at about the same time (temp) ate often found together in the same igneous rock.
if two identical rocks were weathered one mechanically and one chemically how would the two rocks differ?
During chemical weathering substances transform.

Mechanical weathering substances don't change composition but they break down smaller pieces.
How does mechanical weathering add the effectiveness of chemical weathering?
Mechanical weathering exposes more surface area to be affected by chemical weathering.
How is carbonic acid formed in nature?
Carbon dioxide dissolved in water creates carbonic acid.
What are the products when this acid reacts with potassium feldspar
Feldspar crystals become dull and slowly turn to clay. Soluble salt, silica
Which minerals are most common in detrital sedimentary rocks? Why are these minerals so abundant?
Clay minerals and quartz.

Quartz is abundant because it is resistant to chemical weathering

Clay minerals are abundant because they are the product of chemical weathering .
What is the primary basis for distinguishing among various detrital sedimentary rocks?
Particle size
Distinguish between the two categories of chemical sedimentary rocks.
Chemical sedimentary rocks are the result of physical processes.

biochemical sedimentary rocks made from organic material.
Coquina cemented seashell fragments.
What are evaporate deposits ?
Provide an example of an evaporite.
It is a mineral that was dissolved in water and when the water dries up the mineral is deposited.

Halite - rock salt
Gypsum Calcium Sulfate
Compaction is an important lithification process with which sediment size?
Fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shale.
What is probably the single most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks?
They are particularly important in the study of Earth's history.

layers: Strata,beds

As each layer of sediment accumulates each record the nature of the environment at the time the sediment was deposited.
What is metamorphism?
"To change form" a process that leads to changes in the mineralogy texture when the rock is subjected to the agents of change.
List the four agents of metamorphism.
Confining Pressure
Differential stress
Chemically active fluids
triggers chemical reactions
Causes spaces between mineral grains to close. existing minerals recrystallize into new minerals.
Chemically active fluids
Surround mineral grains and act as catalysts to promote recrystallization
Contact Metamorphism
A type of metamorphism where rock minerals and texture are changed, mainly by heat, due to contact with magma
Regional metamorphism
Where rock minerals and texture are changed by heat and pressure over a wide area or region
Which feature would easily distinguish schist and Gneiss from quartzite and marble?
Schist and Gneiss are Foliate
quartzite and Marble are non foliated
in what ways do metamorphic rocks differ from the igneous and sedimentary rocks from which they formed
they may have a different mineral composition; they may become foliated the minerals may be larger than before and they will probably be denser.
Flat arrangement of mineral grains
Regionally metamorphosed rock
Compressional stresses.