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39 Cards in this Set

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Changes during adulthood

- longest stage of the life cycle


- nutrients are used to maintain the body (needs change)


- aging occurs (after age 30 body systems begin to slow)

Adult stages

1. 19- 30


2. 31-50


3. 51-70


4. 70 years and beyond




19-50 young adulthood


51-70 middle


70 older adulthood

Reserve Capacity

extent to which an organ preserve essentially normal function despite decreasing cell number or cell activity

Curretn Hypothesis about the causes of agin

1. errors in copying DNA


2. Free radical damage cells


3. Neuroendocrine communication and coordination diminish


4. immune system loses some efficecy


5. autoimmunity develops


6.cross-linkng or glycosylation of proteins occur


7. death is programmed into cell


8. excess energy intake speeds body breakdown

usual aging

expected part of aging, such as, increasing body fatness, decreasing lean body mass, rising blood pressure, declining bone mass, and increasingly poor health the age-related physical and physiological changes commonly thought to be a typical or expected part of aging, such as, increasing body fatness, decreasing lean body mass, rising blood pressure, declining bone mass, and increasingly poor health




- can be accelerated by unhealthy lifestyles

Successful aging

physical and physiological function declines that occur only because one grows older, not because of lifestyle choices, environmental exposures, and chronic disease have aggravated or sped up the rate of aging.




-experience age-related decline later in life

Heredity

genetic characteristics that affect the rate of aging




-parents lived for a long time


- Thrifty metabolism- store more fat and may lead to increased risk of developing health problems


- rate of HDL-cholesterol may have a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease & a longer life

Lifestyle

food choices, exercise patterns, and substance use affect life & longevity




- can decrease hereditary factors



Environment

income, education level, health care, shelter and psychosocial factors

adulthood guidelines

1. consume a variety of nutrient-dense foods and beverages


2. Maintain body weight in healthy range


3. build healthy eating patterns

Nutrition needs for adults

often exceed calories, fat, sodium, and alcohol




fall short on vitamin D, E, folate, magnesium, calcium, zinc and fiber




iron levels are good for women after menopause occurs



Calories

after age 30 total calories fall steadily throughout adulthood




caused by decline in basal metabolism - excercise

Protein

tends to exceed recomenended levels - may help preserve muscle and bone mass

Fat

usually above recommendations - good to reduce fat intake

Carbs

often lower than recommended




emphasize complex carbs rather than simple - will control blood sugar levels

Water

most fail to consume enough




need to drink more as it will reduce risk of diesase s

Mineral and Vitamins

pay attention to calcium, vitamin D, iron, zinc, magnesium, folate, and B-6/B-12, and E



Calcium and Vitamin D

become problimatic after age 50




reduce syntesis of vitmain D in skina dn kidnesy decrease ability to put vitmain D in its active form whcih cuases osteoporosis




eat fatty fis and fortified milk

Iron

iron deficency anemia is common - oftne happens beacuse they cant compensate for loss of iron during menstration



Zinc

absorption decline as stomach acid production dimisnishes with age




leads delayed wound healign

Magnesium

low in diets




may contribute to the loss of bone strenght, muscular weakness, and mental confusion seen in some elderly




can lead to sudden death from poor heart rhythem and is linked to cardiovascular disease, psteoporosis, and diabetes

Folate and Vitmain B-6 and B-12

important to women during childbearing years. they are required to clear homocysteine from the bloodstream, elevated bood stream




as we age the stomach slows its productionof acid and intrinsic factor which leads to poor absorption of vitamin B-12 and enventually pernicious anemia



Carotenoid

has antiaging effects and health protective effects




diets high in fruit and vegetables are good

Body Composition

Usual Changes: Gradual steady decline in lean body mass (sarcopenia) and body water; slow increase in fatty tissue and redistribution of body fat from the limbs to the torso




Nurtitional Implications: decreased metabolic rate, calorie intake to drop. adequate fluid intake is important (risk of dehydration) and abiity to regulate internal temperature. Excessive increase in fatty tissue raises the risk of developing conditions (high blood pressure, hgih blood glucsose etc.)




Ways to Minimize: eating nutrious diet not exceeding calory need and excercising

Skeletal System

Usual Changes: slow steady loss of bone minerals, in women, loss rise greatly in the first 5-10 years after menopause; may lead to osteoporosis




Nutritional Implications: Adequate calcium and vitamin D during young adulthood helps build bone density and in the remainder of adulthood maintain and, perhaps, even increase bone mass




Ways to Minimize: eat diet rich in calcium and vitamin D, keep weight at normal level, avoid smoking & alcohol

Cardio & respiratory systems

Usual Changes: gradual decrease in the ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen and nutrient-rich blood to body cells (aerobic capacity) and remove metabolic wastes; rise in blood pressure




Nutritional Implications: reduction in cardiovascular and respiratory systems negatively affect the function of other organs and decrease their function, lowers calorie need and possibly altering nutrient needs.




Ways to Minimize: eating low-fat diet in antioxidant nutrients, maintaining a healthy weight; exercising, lowering sodium,

Digestive System

Usual Changes: diminished chewing ability, decline in efficiency of digesting and nutrient absorption due to reduced secretion of HCL and gastric, pancreatic, and intestinal digestive enzymes; decline in vitamin B-12 absorption due to decreased secretion of intrinsic factor, decline in liver's ability to metabolize alcohol and drugs, slowdown in the movement of chyme through the intestines




Nutritional Implications: impairs absorption of iron, calcium, folate, vitamin B-6, and protein.




Ways to Minimize: consume vitamin C & D& calcium , Eating smaller meals, eating fiber

Urinary System

Usual Changes: Decrease efficiency of kidneys to filter out metabolic waste, concentrating urine, and putting Vitamin D synthesized in the skin in its active form




Nutritional Implications: impairs reabsorption of glucose, amino acids, and vitamin C& D.




Ways to Minimize: avoid excessive intake of nutrient and other substances that must be filtered out by the kidneys.

Nervous system

Usual Changes: gradual decline in number of cells that transmit nerve signals, which may result in decreased sensory perceptions, slowed reaction times, and impaired neuromuscular coordination, reasoning, and memory






Nutritional Implications: loss in taste and smell may reduce desire to eat, leading to weight loss. Diminished sensory perceptions may decrease secretions from the salivary glands, stomach, and pancreas and result in impaired digestion and blood glucose regulation.




Ways to Minimize: No real way to prevent, promote cardiovascular system, drink fluids, keep blood pressure under control

Immune System

Usual Changes: progressive decline in efficiency that increases susceptibility to infection and disease




Nutritional Implications: calorie and nutrient needs rise during infection an disease




Ways to Minimize: not inevitably, eatin a diet that meets nutrient needs and prevents obesity can help lower the risk of immune dysfunction, exercise regularly.

Endocrine System

Usual Changes: gradual decrease in hormone synthesis, hormone release, or sensitivity to hormones




Nutritional Implications: decreased sensitivity to insulin means that it takes longer for blood glucose to return to normal after a meal. Reduction in thyroid hormone slows metabolic rate and decreases calorie need.




Ways to Minimize: Eat nutritious diet, maintain healthy weight, maintain lean body mass, getting injection of growth hormone

Reproductive System

Usual Changes: few changes until menopause for women, males have slow decline in testosterone




Nutritional Implications: iron needs drop after menopause, may lead to loss of lean body tissue for men




Ways to Minimize: cannot be altered

chronic illness

the prevalence of obseity, heart disease, osteoporosis, cancer, hypertension, and diabetes rises wit age.

Medications

older adults take many medications and nutrient supplements




They can improve health and quality of life but some adversely affect nutritional status.

Psychosocial factors

depression and feeling of social isolation can lead to losses in appetite and interest in food,

Alcohol Use

the consequences of alcohol use and abuse incrase with age. They become intoxicated on smaller amounts





Slowed restoration of homeostasis

the body takes longer to restore homeostasis as the body tissue and system ages

alzheimer Disease

it is irreversible and prgressive deterioration of the brain that causes victims to steadily lose the ability to remember, reason, and comprehend.




Eat vitamin C&E, folate, vitmain B-6 & 12.



Arthritis

Disease that causes the degeneration and roughening of the once smooth cartilage that covers and cushions the bone joint/ formation of calcium deposits.




cause them to ache and become inflamed (makes it painful to move)




no way to stop it