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38 Cards in this Set

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Antidepressants

Medications designed to counteract depression.

Anxiolytics

Drugs that alleviate the symptoms of anxiety.

Client-centered therapy

A form of humanistic therapy associated with Carl Rogers, in which the therapists genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and emphatic understanding are crucial to therapeutic success.

Clinical utility

Whether a therapeutic intervention works under real word conditions.

Cognitive-behavioral approach

A hybrid form of psychotherapy focused on changing the patients habitual interpretations of the works and ways of behaving.

Cognitive restructuring

A set of cognitive therapy techniques for changing a persons maladaptive beliefs or interpretations through persuasion and confrontation.

Cognitive therapy

An approach to therapy that ties to change some of the patients habitual modes of thinking about herself, her situation, and he future.

Contingency management

A form of behavioral therapy in which certain behaviors are reliably followed by well-defined consequences.

Cultural competence

An understanding of how a patients cultural background shapes his beliefs, values, and expectations for therapy.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

An emerging biomedical treatment for depression and OCD that involves stimulating specific parts of the brain with implanted electrodes.

Deinstitutionalization

A movement that began in the 1950s that aimed to prove better, less expensive care for chronically mentally ill patients in their own communities rather than at large, centralized hospitals.

Eclecticism

An approach to treatment that deliberately weaves together multiple types and forms of therapy. Also called multimodal therapy.

Efficacy

Whether a therapeutic intervention works under carefully controlled conditions.

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

A somatic treatment, mostly used for cases of severe depression, I which a brief electric current is passed through the brain to produce a convulsive seizure.

Empirically supported treatments (EST)

Clinical methods that research has shown to be effective for treating a given disorder.

Experimental therapies

A family of therapies that seek to create an empathic and accepting therapeutic atmosphere, while challenging the patient to deepen his experience.

Exposure therapy

A behavioral therapy that aims to remove the anxiety connected to a feared stimulus by gradually conditioning relaxed responses to the stimulus.

Gestalt therapy

A form of humanistic therapy associated with Fritz Perls that aims to help the patient integrate inconsistent aspects of herself into a coherent whole by increasing self-awareness and self-acceptance.

Humanistic approach

An approach to therapy centered around the idea that people must take responsibility for their lives and actions.

In vivo desensitization

One key step in the behavioral treatment of a phobia in which the patient is gradually exposed to the phobic stimulus.

Interpersonal therapy (IPT)

A form of therapy focused on helping the patient understand how she interacts with others and then learn better ways of interacting and communicating

Manualized therapy

A form of therapy, often used in research, in which a manual describes a set course of therapy, indicating what steps the therapist should take, what instructions to offer, and so on.

Meta-analysis

A statistical technique for combining the results of many studies on a particular topic, even when the studies used different data collection methods.

Mood stabilizers

Medications that treat bipolar disorder, such as lithium.

Motivational-enhancement therapy

A brief, non confrontational, client centered therapy designed to change specific problematic behaviors such as alcohol or drug use.

Placebo

A chemically inert substance that produced real medical benefits because the patient believed it will help him.

Psychodynamic approaches

Approaches to personality and/or therapy that are derived from psychoanalytic theory, which asserts that clinical symptoms arise from unconscious conflicts rooted in childhood.

Psychosurgery

Neurosurgery performed to alleviate manifestations of mental disorders that Cannot be alleviated using psychotherapy, medication, or other standard treatments.

Psychotropic drugs

Medications that control, or at least moderate, the manifestations of some mental disorders.

Randomized clinical trial (RCT)

A procedure for evaluating the outcome of therapy, usually involving random assignment of participants to one or more treatment groups or a no-treatment control group.

Rational emotive behavioral therapy

A form of cognitive therapy associated with Albert Ellis, in which the therapist actively challenges the patients irrational beliefs.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

An emerging biomedical treatment for depression that involved applying rapid pulses of magnetic stimulation to the brain from a coil held near the scalp.

Subsyndromal disorder

An instance of a mental disorder in which someone does show symptoms, but not at a level of intensity, frequency, or duration that would justify a formal diagnosis.

Therapeutic alliance

The relationship between therapist and patient that helps many patients feel hopeful and supported.

Token economy

A behavioral therapy technique based on operant conditioning in which patients positive behaviors are reinforced with tokens that they can exchange for desirable items.

Transference

A patients tendency to respond to the analyst or therapist in ways that re-create her responses to major figures in her life.

Vagal nerve stimulation

An emerging biomedical treatment for depression that involves electrically stimulating the vagus nerve with a small battery powered implant.

Wait-list control

In randomized clinical trials, a control condition in which patients receive delayed treatment rather than no treatment. Before being treated, they are compared to the patients treated earlier.