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43 Cards in this Set

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Compare ANS with somatic nervous system for the following:

# of neurons between CNS and effector organ
ANS
2 (pre and post ganglion)

Somatic
1
Compare ANS with somatic nervous system for the following:

location of neuronal cell bodies
ANS
CNS and autonomic ganglia

Somatic
CNS
Compare ANS with somatic nervous system for the following:

structures each innervates
ANS
smooth muscle
cardiac
glands

Somatic
skeletal muscles
Compare ANS with somatic nervous system for the following:

inhibitory or excitatory effects
ANS
both excitatory or inhibitory

Somatic
Always excitatory
Compare ANS with somatic nervous system for the following:

conscious or unconscious
ANS
mostly unconscious

Somatic
mostly conscious
What is a preganglionic neuron?
First neurons of the series going from CNS (brainstem or lateral horn of s.c. gray mater) to autonomic ganglia
What is a postganglionic neuron?
second neurons of series going from autonomic ganglia to target organ
Where are the cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic neurons located?
lateral horns of spinal cord gray matter T1-L2
What types of axon (preganglionic or post, myelinated or un) are found in white and gray rami communicantes?
pre=myelinated, small in diameter
white matter rami communicans

post=unmyelinated,
gray matter rami communicans
Describe spinal nerve synapses
pregang axons go thru white rami communicans to sympathetic chain ganglion

(some synapse on same level, others go up or down to synapse)

Postgang exits via gray matter rami communicans and enters a spinal nerve
Discuss a sympathetic nerve synapse
pregang go thru white matter rami communicans to sympathetic chain ganglion,
goes up or down or stays and exits via postgang axon thru gray matter rami communicans to SYMPATHETIC nerve
Discuss splanchinc nerve synapse
pregang axon goes via white rami communicans (bypassing the sympathetic chain ganglion) to collateral ganglion where it synapses with postgang axon and goes to target
What's different about splanchnic nerves and the adrenal gland?
only has pregang neurons

synapses with adrenal medulla (specialized cells similar to postgang cells)
What does the adrenal gland secrete and what is it good for?
epinephrine and norepinephrine

prepares the individual for physical activity
What is sympathetic division?

What is parasympathetic division?
T1-L2


S2-S4
cranial nerve nuclei in brainstem or
lateral horns of gray matter in sacral spinal cord
Where does the parasympathetic synapse take place?

Where are these?
terminal ganglia

near or in target organ
What is the enteric nerve plexus?

What does it consist of?
within the wall of the digestive tract

sensory neurons, ANS motor neurons and enteric neurons
How does sympathetic axons reach target organs?
spinal nerves

head and neck plexuses

thoracic nerve plexuses

abdominopelvic nerve plexuses
How do parasympathetic axons reach target organs?
cranial nerves

thoracic nerve plexuses

abdominopelvic nerve plexuses

pelvic splanchnic nerves
What is a cholinergic neuron?
a neuron that secretes ACh
What is an adrenergic neuron?
a neuron that secretes norepinephrine (or epinephrine)
What are the cholinergic neurons?
pregang sympathetic
pregang parasympathetic
postgang parasympathetic
What are the adrenergic neurons?
almost all postgang sympathetic
(a few thermo sweat glands are cholinergic)
What receptors does ACh bind to?

Where are they?
nicotinic
found in all post gang neurons

muscarinic
found in all parasympathetic and some sympathetic effector organs
What receptors does Epinephrine and Norepinephrine bind to?
alpha and beta receptors
found in most sympathetic effector organs
Which receptor is always excitatory?
Nicotinic
What do autonomic reflexes control most of the activity in?
visceral organs

glands

blood vessels
How does the Cerebrum and Limbic system influence the ANS?
Through hypothalamus
anterior = para
posterior=sympathetic
body temperature too
homeostasis
how does the brainstem influence ANS?
reflex centers for pupil size
accommodation
tear production
salivation
coughing
swallowing
digestive activities
heart rate and force of contraction
blood vessel diameter
respiration
How does spinal cord influence ANS
reflex centers for regulating defecation
urination
penile and clitoral erection
ejaculation
What are the cranial nerves in the parasympathetic division?
III (Oculomotor)
XII (Facial)
IX (glossopharengeal)
X (vagus)
What's another term for sympathetic chain ganglion?
paravertebral ganglia
What parasympathetic function does the facial nerve control?
secretion of
saliva

tears

nasal secretions
name 3 parasympathetic fibers of vagus nerve from autonomic plexuses
cardiac

esophageal

pulmonary
What autonomic plexus is formed by sacral parasympathetic fibers?
inferior hypogastric
Name 3 collateral ganglion of the sympathetic division
celiac

inferior mesenteric

superior mesenteric
What is a cilliary ganglion?
terminal ganglion of parasympathetic division

oculomotor goes thru it to innervate ciliary muscles and iris
What does the celiac plexus supply?
diaphragm
stomach
spleen
liver
gallbladder
arenal glands
kidneys
testesj
ovaries
What does the superior mesenteric plexus supply?
pancreas,
small intestine
ascending colon
transverse colon
What do the superior and inferior hypogastric plexuses supply?
descending colon
urinary bladder
reproductive organs
What ganglions is the facial nerve associated with?
pterygopalatine ganglion

submandibular
What is atropine used for
dilating eyes in eye exam
What is albuterol do and used for
dilate bronchioles in asthma