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71 Cards in this Set

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s the subfield of psychology whose goal is to explore and understand the relationship between brain processes, human behavior, and psychological functioning.

neuropsychology

most often study ppl with brain damage but sometimes do research on normal brains(they find out norms of what you should expect)

experimental neuropsychologists

use this knowledge to try to understand the problems that appear in particular individual such as max, they are found in hospitals, other health care settings where they work w/ physicians to test ppl with brain damage.(they test those ppl to see if they have the norms)

clinical neuropsychologists

when parts of the temporal lobes on both sides of the brain dont work properly(where something goes wrong when your brain tries to convert sensations into recognizable visual perceptions(max not being able to name a paperclip)

visual agnosia

the idea that a specific psychological function can be afffected by damage to a specific brain area.

localization of function

a simple way to measure someones personality from the head created by franz gall

phrenology

a condition where one of the blood vessels to the brain is blocked causing permanent damage to the brain.

crebrovascular accident or CVA

damaged area of the brain

lesion

what happened to TAN

paul broca took care of him and saw a lesion in th eleft frontal lobe which caused speech problems which bring back localization of function

areas of the brain regions are organized in???

modules

says each module located in a unique area acts like a circuit board in a computer where it doesnt control a function but it adds a needed to piece to complete a function. Each brain function is detecting the edges of an object or making a decision is accomplished through the support of a team

modularity view

the support team in modularity view is

network of modules

a syndrome of a pattern of symptoms and in this case it occurss when various modules in a network are prevented from interacting even when the modules themselves are intact ex. alexia w/o agraphia which is the inability to read while still being able to write

dissconnection syndrome

what is localization of function by observing the results of brain damage.It also addresses the question of what function it is that has been damaged for ex. you doing a math problem takes a lot of different functions, if a brain lesion makes it hard for you to talk you would not be able to tell how much two and two equals, this doesnt mean there is anything wrong with your mathematical ability. To figure out what problem a patient with brain damage has an experimental neurpsychologists looks at complex mental tasks such as doing math and tring to find which of these abilites are separated or dissociated. One way to find a dissociation between abilites is to study which componenets of a mental task are affected by which kinds of brain damage.

lesion analysis

they give patients tests designed to assess a wide range of mental functions such as intelligence, memory, reading, motor, coordination, naming pics

neuropsychological assessment

some neuropsychological assessments are

halstead reitan battery, wexhsler adult intellligence scale, and the luria nebraska neuropsychological battires

what offers the advantage of givine each patients the same tests in the same way and they dont allow to be tailored?

standarised batteries

who administers a standerised battery but then additional testing too?

clinical neuropsychologists

what effects performance tests?

age, education, and cultural background

how do you administer tests

each tests must be compared to normas that were administered to thousand of ppl on the patients own age, education, and cultural background, who have NO brain damage

train in graduate school, earning a Ph.D in clinical psychology with a special focus on neuropsychology and the many topics related to it and they must do an internship to get a license. It usually involves a year or more of practice of neuropsychology and is performed under the close supervision of someone who is licensed. They are usually hired by helath facilities where they need testing on patients for brain damage. Experimental psychologists are ususally employed as professors where they teach, conduct their own research, and participate in testing patients.

training for neuropsychology

when behavior and menatl processes are affected by loss of blood supply int he brain, no pain and treatments have to be right away it effects the area around the part of the brian too but that part can recover what is this?

CVA

sudden impact on the brain, when a persons head is struck or when the head is suddenly moving and stops can cause brain damage bc the brain is not attached to the skull it floats within it suspended by the cerebrospinal fluid. The amount of damage depends on the amount of forceand it may be widespread, ppl may show deficits that are far more diffuse, harder to specify, and involve more aspects of functioning, including cognitive and psychiatric problems.

traumatic brain injury

develop gradually this disease is causing, it is the gradual damage to brain cells

neurodegenerative diseases

gradual process of damage to the brain cells

deurodegeneration

what are neuropsychological disorders include

amnestic disorders, consciousness disturbances, perceptual disturbances, disorders of lang. and communication, movement disorders, and disorders involving dimentia

amnestic disorders involve?

memory loss(often refered to amnesia). the ability to create long term memories can be impaired by damage in the brains medial temporal lobebs(medial means towards the middle) ecspecially towards the hippocampus.

who is an example of amnestic disorder?

Henry Molasion of H.M. got both sides of his temporal lobes and hippocampys removed to stop seizures but he couldnt form new memories this was known as anterograde amnesia. But he provides a good example of dissociation bc he could still do things

anterograde amnesia and other amnestic syndromes can be caused by?

brain infections such as herpes encephalitis

how can memory loss occur?

when strokes in the thalamus damage these limbic system connections.Which is the thalamus processes info from all senses except smell and send it on the cerebral cortex for further processing but some areas of the thalamus are also part of the brains limbic system, an interconnected set of structures that includes the hippocampus.

what is korsakoff psychosis

The medial dorsal(part of the thalamus, middle top section) is often damaged by korsakoffs psychosis where a persons thiamine(vitamin B1) dimnishes by inadequate nutrition or alcoholism. the thiamine is needed to process glucose for energy. The result is anterograde amnesia with an unusual feature; korsakoffs psychosis are prone to confabulation where they create false memories, spontaneously in response to questions.

confabulation

create false memories, spontaneoulsy in response to questions

conscious disturbances

it impairs ppls ability be conscious, or accurately aware of the world around them. It can occur when their is damage to the reticular formation also known as reticular activatin system or RAS.

what is RAS

long tube like structure that begins in the base of the brain and extends upward, eventually splitting into two halves that reach into both sides of the thalamus. It normally increases and descreases arousal in the rest of the brain and helps create our daily cycles of wakefulness and sleep. If it distubed we can fall into a coma with less damage it may enter a persistent vegetative state or a minimally conscious state.

what is PVS(persistent vegatative state) and minimally conscious state(MCS)

may open their eyes and appear to wake up during the day and close their eyes and ppear asleppy at night and may also show a wider array of movements than do coma patients. Most patients appear unaware or only vaguely aware of their invironement, the chances for recovery are often poor following signigicant damage to the RAS.

delirium

characterized by restlessness, illusions, and incoherence of thought and speech.

what is elevated consciousness from delirium?

hallucinations or periods of mental agitation for no reason

common causes of delirium?

cerebrovascular accidents, traumatic brain injury, encephalitis, lesions in the frontal and temporal lobes, fever, poisons, infections that have reached bloodstream, and side effects of meds, and it may create medical emergency, most are not permanent

where a person may have CVA that causes total paralysis of one side of the body but the person may not have awareness to this(absence of knowledge to a disease)

anosognosia

is a weakness or partial paraysis that affects just one side of the body it is said ppl are capable of knowing they have this but it would be so hard to admit so they dont.

hemiparesis

wade technique

where she injected one side of the brain hemisphere to paralyze the other side

retrospective bias

to look back at events with a preference towards a particular perspective or ideology

how to get away from retrospective bias?

use perpective study- large group is identified and you contact on regular basis for many years

what system

pathway down toward the temporal lobe it helps us decide what is that we are seeing damage to this could lead to visual agnosia, prosoagnosia, capgras syndrome of capgras delusion

visual agnosia

you can see objects, describe them, draw them, but no longer known what the object is based on their appearance ex. closing your eyes and feeling an apple they can say apple but looking at one they cant

prosopagnosia

not being ablet o recognize faces this happens in the temporal lobes structures most ppl have damage to both sides of the brain but sometimes lesions on the right side is enough

capgras syndrome or capgras delusion

when believing someone you know is being replaced by an imposter it tends to occur after temporal lobe damage it creates a disconnection between brain areas that usually permanent, one case was able to be cured by anti seizure medication

what is the where system?

processes info about the location of objects and where thos objects are in relation to one another damage can cause simultanagnosia, hemineglect

simultanagnosia

where a person can see parts of a scene but has difficulty seeing the whole see, ex. a person sees tress but not the whole forest, its caused by damage on both sides of the brain in upper part of the parietal lobes

hemineglect

usually occurs after CVA involves difficulty seeing, responding to, or acting on info coming from either the right(more often) or the left side of the world, the side of space neglects is usually the opposite side of the parietal lobe damaged

launguage disorders of aphasia is what?

damage or dysfunction to a particular area of the brains language centers most occur from the left side of th brain

Primary progressive aphasia(PPA)

cognitive impairment that involves a progressive loss of language it is usually caused by frontotemporal degeneration(FTD)

frontotemporal degeneration(FTD)

gradually kills nerve cells in the forward section of the brains temporal or frontal lobes, often more on one side than the other unlike CVA, FTD tends to affect a specific brain area and the symtoms gradually happen over years.

brocas area

helps translate thought into words or writing

brocas aphasia

is loss of language fluency most words they can still use are concrete objects so they usually speak telegraphic

telegraphic

spekaing stule that recalls a bygone area where they had to pay for each word ppl with brocas aphasia say "give spoon" instead of give me the spoon please

paraphasias

also in brocas aphasia they tend to be phonemic paraphasias or errors in the way a word should sound ex. pen would be called "peb"

agrammatism

brocas aphasia also has this where they dont notice they are the same: in the boy hit the girl and the girl got hit by the boy

wernickes area

involves the area to understand the meaning of sensory info these ppl have diffuclty understanding what they read what others are saying, the patient will see others speaking as nonsense and the world unfriendly strange place where everyone else has a problem

semanti paraphasias

in wernickes area where naming errors in which they may use words with the wrong meaning, so when they try to name a pen they may call it a book they tend to use adjectives and articles and adverbs but less nouns and verbs which leaves their speech empty

which side contains dysfunction to language and which side to communication?

language is left, communication is right



aprosodia(meaning losing the ability to use tone of voive to express meaning or to use other ppls tone of voice to help them) it takes several forms what are those?

1)expressive aprosodia-is damage to right frontal lobe where ppl speak in monotone that may be forced to say i am angry to let ppl know their emotion


2)receptive aprosodia-damage to the right temporal and paritel regions and says that they can use tone of voice correctly when tehy speak but have difficulty understandin the menaing of others tone of voice so if ppl speak in sarcasm they may not see the sarcastic remark

movement disorders or apraxias

where learned motor skills are disrupted

two main types of apraxia?

1)ideational apraxia-movement to complete tasks are all correct but in wrong order


2)ideomotor apraxia- involves difficulty not in sequence of order but in the skilled movements of performing them ex. unable to brush teeth bc you are unable to do the arm and hand motions

mild cognitive impairment(MCI)

it may come before demientia in amnestic MCI a paitent may display below average memory skill but no other deficits and they may have adapted to this so that it doesnt cause problems in daily life, each yr. it can progress to dementia if they have this a lowfat mediterranean diet and meds can stabilize memory and slow the development

dementia is usually caused by what?

neurodengerative diseases and the most commmon is alzheimers

what is alzheimers?

1)degernated nerve cells that had twisted into misshapen tangles


2)clumps of protein deposits called amyloid plaques lying around the outside of dead and dying nerve cells

what do we know now about alzheimers?

where neurofibrillary tangles are most numerous in alzheimers are precisley the areas that fail to work properaly and cause most patients symptoms and lathough everyone gains amyloid plaque as they get older alzheimers have abnoramlly large amount of it and some say it is what creates brain damage.

what else have they found?

`

anatomical basis of the disease mainly involves neurons that use the neurtransmitter acetylcholine they also found that the dsyfunction in the parietal and medial temporal lobes on both sides cause symtoms bc parietal lobes are important for locating objects and in these patients they have difficulty drawing certain kinds of shapes any may easily get lost. The left parietal lobe contains langauge ability patients w/ alzheimers may develop anomia which is a condition where it becomes hard to name objects even if they know what the object is. the left also contains brain areas that are important for learned skills so these kinds of functions also become impaired enought to lead to apraxia. and bc the medial temporal lobes contain the hippocampus patients become unable to form new memories, old memories are still accesible until the disease progresses further. and bc the temporal lobes are important for the ability to interpret visual sensations patients w. this sometimes develop visual agnosia which is an inability to recognize the objects they see.

what drugs help alzheimers and dementia?

dimebolin(dimebon), galantamine(reminyl), and rivastigmine(exelon) have bee shown to be effective at slowing the progress, certain antidepressants may have similar benefits and anitpsychotic drugs may reduce some of the behavioral and psychological syptoms of it. there is no cure

vascular dementia

type of ementia in which memory loss and other psychological deficits are not caused by alzeiherms or any other kind of neurodegenerative disease it is brough about by restrictions in the brains blood supply resulting in death of brain tissue, it is usually in 71 and older and alzheimers occurs with this it causes memory loss, difficulty in remembing recent events, they can make new memories they have more a problem with retrieving recent memories than forming them