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25 Cards in this Set

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A chromosomal aberration in which one or more chromosomes are present in extra copies or are deficient in number.
Barr body
A dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in cells of female mammals, representing a highly condensed, inactivated X chromosome.
chromosome theory of inheritance
A basic principle in biology stating that genes are located on chromosomes and that the behavior of chromosomes during meiosis accounts for inheritance patterns
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
cytogenetic map
A chart of a chromosome that locates genes with respect to chromosomal features distinguishable in a microscope.
One of usually numerous, short, highly branched extensions of a neuron that receive signals from other neurons.
Down Syndrome
A human genetic disease caused by the presence of an extra chromosome 21; characterized by mental retardation and heart and respiratory defects.
Duchenne muscular dystrophy
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele; characterized by progressive weakening and a loss of muscle tissue.
An aberration in chromosome structure due to fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome, such that a portion of a chromosome is duplicated.
genetic map
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome.
genetic recombination
General term for the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
genomic imprinting
A phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent.
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele resulting in the absence of one of more blood-clotting proteins; characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from reattachment of a chromosomal fragment in a reverse orientation to the chromosome from which it originated.
linkage map
A genetic map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossing over of homologous chromosomes.
linked genes
Genes located close enough together on a chromosome that they tend to be inherited together.
map unit
A unit of measurement of the distance between genes. One map unit is equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.
Referring to a cell that has only one copy of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two.
An error in meiosis or mitosis in which members of a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromatids fail to separate properly from each other.
parental type
An offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes; also refers to the phenotype itself.
A chromosomal alteration in which the organism possesses more than two complete chromosome sets. It is the result of an accident of cell division.
sex-linked gene
A gene located on a sex chromosome (usually the X), resulting in a distinctive pattern of inheritance.
a) An aberration in chromosome structure resulting from attachment of a chromosomal fragment to a nonhomologous chromosome. 2) During protein synthesis, the 3rd stage in the elongation cycle when the RNA carrying the growing polypeptide moves from the A site to the P site on the ribosome. 3) The transport of organic nutrients in the phloem of vascular plants.
Referring to a diploid cell that has three copies of a particular chromosome instead of the normal two.
wild type
An individual with the phenotype most commonly observed in natural populations; also refers to the phenotype itself.