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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

properties of autonomic nervous system

visceral motor control glands, cardiac and smooth muscle


visceral effectors dont need autonomic innervation to function- but wont be able to adjust- para or sym

visceral reflexes- slower than somatic

distinctions between sym and parasym

sym- fight or flight to rapidly mobilize energy

para- rest and digest- homeostatic and maintanence


post has inputs from MANY pre


single pre with multiple post


thoracolumbar division- pre only leave from there

short pre, long post

thoracic to neck

lumbar to sacral and coccygeal

has both convergence and divergence- rapid body wide response

pre ganglionic of sym

small myelinated

white communicating rami

three course

-end in ganglion- synpase with post

-travel up or down and synpase in ganglion- only route for sacral, coccygeal, and cervical

- through chain w/o synapsing and continue as splanchnic nerve

post ganglionic of ssym


gray communicating ramus

spinal nerve route- exit ganglion by gray ramus, return to spinal nerve and travel to organ

sympathetic nerve route- post leave by sympathetic to heart, lungs, thoracic

splanchnic- dont synapse- go to second set of ganglia

TARGETS- digestive and genital system

para sym

much less convergence and divergence

more selective


visceral reflex arcs

small number of synapse

lower brain levels- hind, midbrain

motor output is stereotyped (like somatic)

1st- baroreceptors sense increased BP

2- glossopharyngeal nerve transmit to medulla

3- vagus nerve inhibit cardiac pacemaker

4- heart rate decreases

baroreceptors- mechanoreceptors

overall nerve types

spinal nerve- muscles and body wall

sympathetic- head and thoracic cavity

splanchnic- abdominopelvic cavity

autonomic tone

vagal- para- low

sym- higher

middle= instrinic rate

synapse in sinoatrium

autonomic vs somatic efferent innervation

A- 2 neuron system, has ganglia, pre is myelinated and post is not, varicosities that influence multiple effector cells

S- one neuron, no ganglia, dorsal root ganglia is for sensory NOT motor, long myelinated- individual effector cells

collateral ganglion


superior mesenteric

inferior mesenteric

pre of parasym


originate in midbrain, hindbrain, spinal cord= craniosacral division

terminate in ganglia near or in the target organ

no chain ganglia like sym

post of parasym


enteric nervous system

digestive tract has own nervous system

unlike ANS- not from spinal cord or brainstem

like ANS- smooth muscle and glands

has more neurons

4 layers- serosa, muscularis externa, interna, submucosa

2 plexuses-

myenteric- between externa and interna,

submucosal- close to sub layer

infleunce on digestive system

motility- moving food to be processed (myenteric bc btw muscle)

secretion- enzymes

blood flow- nutrients are absorbed (submucosal)

adrenal glands

superior poles of kidneys

each gland is 2 glands with different functions

outer= cortex- secrete hormones

inner= medulla- sympathetic ganglion


modified postganglionic neurons with dendrites of axons

pre come through cortex and terminate on medulla bc postganglionic like

secrete mix of hormones- catecholamines= NE

same division have contrasting effects on different organs

parasym- contract bladder, relax urethral sphincter= Ach

Sym- constrict vessel, relax bronchioles= NE

Parasym fiber and neurotransmitter

Pre does Ach

post does Ach

sym adrenergic

pre does Ach

post does NE

sym cholinergic

pre and post do Ach

cholinergic receptors

muscarinic- all smooth and cardiac muscles, gland cells, Ach excites them so cardiac cant bind to another

nicotinic- all synapses in autonomic ganglia, adrenal medulla or NMJ, open ligand-gated ion channels to excite post

adrenergic receptors

alpha- 2 subclasses- usually excitatory sometimes inhibit(ex- labor contractions, inhibit intestinal motility)

1- Ca2+ as second messenger

2- cAMP

beta- 2 subclasses- usually inhibitory sometime excitatory

cAMP is second messenger

relax smooth, excite cardiac

Sym last longer than para

Ach is broken down fast

NE has more fates- resorbed, diffuse to tissue, in blood where it wont break down

dual innervation

most viscera get fibers from both sym and parasym

antagonistic or cooperative effects


oppose each other

sym- speed up heart- sinoatrial

para- slow down

can be same muscle or different

sym- pupillary dilator

para- constrictor


different effector make unified effect


para- serous cell secrete watery, enzyme secretion

sym- mucous cell to secrete mucus

control without dual innervation

adrenal medulla, piloerector, sweat glands and many blood vessel= ONLY HAVE SYMPATHETIC

regulate blood flow- partial constriction

drop flow- drop in firing to dilate


not independent nervous system

influence by CNS

cerebral cortex


midbrain, pons, medulla

spinal cord

cerbral cortex

anger- raise BP

fear- heart race

limbic system- emotional response- connect with hypothalamus- site of autonomic control

connect sensory and mental with ANS


major site of CNS control somatic motor

center of visceral motor

nuclei of primitive functions- hunger, thrist, thermoreg

can activate fight or flight OR calming

midbrain, pons, medulla

cardiac, vasomotor control, salivation, swallow, sweat

reticular formation- medulla to hypothalamus

spinal cord

integrate autonomic reflexes- urinate, erect, ejact

brain cant inhibit defecation and urination conscious- injuries sever spinal cord- autonomic can control them