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41 Cards in this Set

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Mechanical Stimuli


Touch


Hearing


Balance

Thermal Stimuli


Hot


Cold

Electromagnetic Stimuli

Vision

Chemical Stimuli


Taste


Smell

Visceral Sensation


Instintive rather than Intellect


Vague and Poorly Localized


Sensations of hunger & thirst


Also inclused visceral stretch receptors in GI tract and urinary system

Tactile Sense

Sensation of something being in contact with the surface of the body

Pressure

Sensation of something pressing on the body surface

Superficial Tempurature Receptors


In the skin


Detect upward or downward changes in skin tempurature

Central Tempurature Receptors


In the hypothalmus


Monitor the tempurature of the blood

Nociceptors


Pain receptors


Widely distributed inside and on the surface of the body


Not present in the brain

Transduction

Conversion o fpainful stimulus into nerve impulses

Transmission

Conduction of nerve impulses to the spinal cord

Modulation


Changes the sensory nerve impulse


Can amplify or suppress sensory impulses

Perception

Conscious awareness of painful stimuli

Proprioception

Sense of body position and movement

Taste


Gustatory Sense

Taste Chemical Receptors

Taste Buds in the oral cavity

Smell


Olfactory Sense


-very important in non human animals


-olfactory cells and supporting cells in epithelial patches in nasal passage


-Odor molecules dissolve in the mucus and contact the sensory processes

Hearing


Auditory Sense


Converts vibrations of air molecules into nerve impulses


Most structures of the ear are located in the temporal bones of the skull

External Ear


Acts as a funnel to collect sound wave vibrations and direct them to the eardum

Middle Ear

Amplifies and transmits the vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear

Inner Ear

Contains the sensory receptors that convert the mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses, along with receptors for the equilibrium sense

External Ear Structures


Pinna


External Auditory Canal


Tympanic Membrane

Pinna

Elastic cartilage and skin

External Auditory Canal

Membrane-lined tube

Tympanic Membrane


AKA Ear drum


Thin connective tisse membrane


Tightly stretched across the opening between the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity

Middle Ear Structures


Three Ossicles ( Malleus, Incus, Stapes)


Eustachian Tube

Three Osscicles Function


Link the tympanic membrane with the cochlea of the inner ear


Act as a system of levers that transmit sound wave vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea

Malleus


Outermost bone


Attached to the tympanic membrane

Incus

Middle Bone

Stapes


Medial most bone


Attached to the membrane that covers the oval window of the cochlea

Inner Ear Structures


Cochlea


Organ of Corti

Cochlea

Shell shaped spiral cavity in the temporal bone

Organ of Corti

Fluid filled portion that makes up the receptor organ of hearing


Runs along the cochlear duct on the basilar membrane


Consists of hair cells ( hearing receptors), supporting cells, and the tectorial membrane

Sound Wave Vibration Cause...


The tympanic membrane and ossicles in the middle ear to vibrate


vibration of fluid around the cochlear duct

Fluid Vibration Cause...


The cochlear duct to move


The tectorial membrane and hair cells of the Organ of Corti to rub against each other


Generates nerve impulses that travel to the brain and are interpreted as sound

Equilibrium Mechanical Sense


Helps maintain balance by keeping track of position and movements of the head

Equilibrium Receptors

Located in the vestibule and semicircular canals in the inner ear

Vestibule


Portion of the inner ear between the cochlea and semicircular canals


-Made up of 2 sac like spaces called utricle and saccule

Vestibule Function


Movement of the head bends the sensory hairs in the 2 sacs


Generates nerve impulses that give the brain information about the postion of the head

Semicircular Canals


Located opposite the vestibules from the cochlea


- contain fluid filled membranous tubes