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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Mechanical Stimuli




Thermal Stimuli



Electromagnetic Stimuli


Chemical Stimuli



Visceral Sensation

Instintive rather than Intellect

Vague and Poorly Localized

Sensations of hunger & thirst

Also inclused visceral stretch receptors in GI tract and urinary system

Tactile Sense

Sensation of something being in contact with the surface of the body


Sensation of something pressing on the body surface

Superficial Tempurature Receptors

In the skin

Detect upward or downward changes in skin tempurature

Central Tempurature Receptors

In the hypothalmus

Monitor the tempurature of the blood


Pain receptors

Widely distributed inside and on the surface of the body

Not present in the brain


Conversion o fpainful stimulus into nerve impulses


Conduction of nerve impulses to the spinal cord


Changes the sensory nerve impulse

Can amplify or suppress sensory impulses


Conscious awareness of painful stimuli


Sense of body position and movement


Gustatory Sense

Taste Chemical Receptors

Taste Buds in the oral cavity


Olfactory Sense

-very important in non human animals

-olfactory cells and supporting cells in epithelial patches in nasal passage

-Odor molecules dissolve in the mucus and contact the sensory processes


Auditory Sense

Converts vibrations of air molecules into nerve impulses

Most structures of the ear are located in the temporal bones of the skull

External Ear

Acts as a funnel to collect sound wave vibrations and direct them to the eardum

Middle Ear

Amplifies and transmits the vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear

Inner Ear

Contains the sensory receptors that convert the mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses, along with receptors for the equilibrium sense

External Ear Structures


External Auditory Canal

Tympanic Membrane


Elastic cartilage and skin

External Auditory Canal

Membrane-lined tube

Tympanic Membrane

AKA Ear drum

Thin connective tisse membrane

Tightly stretched across the opening between the external auditory canal and the middle ear cavity

Middle Ear Structures

Three Ossicles ( Malleus, Incus, Stapes)

Eustachian Tube

Three Osscicles Function

Link the tympanic membrane with the cochlea of the inner ear

Act as a system of levers that transmit sound wave vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the cochlea


Outermost bone

Attached to the tympanic membrane


Middle Bone


Medial most bone

Attached to the membrane that covers the oval window of the cochlea

Inner Ear Structures


Organ of Corti


Shell shaped spiral cavity in the temporal bone

Organ of Corti

Fluid filled portion that makes up the receptor organ of hearing

Runs along the cochlear duct on the basilar membrane

Consists of hair cells ( hearing receptors), supporting cells, and the tectorial membrane

Sound Wave Vibration Cause...

The tympanic membrane and ossicles in the middle ear to vibrate

vibration of fluid around the cochlear duct

Fluid Vibration Cause...

The cochlear duct to move

The tectorial membrane and hair cells of the Organ of Corti to rub against each other

Generates nerve impulses that travel to the brain and are interpreted as sound

Equilibrium Mechanical Sense

Helps maintain balance by keeping track of position and movements of the head

Equilibrium Receptors

Located in the vestibule and semicircular canals in the inner ear


Portion of the inner ear between the cochlea and semicircular canals

-Made up of 2 sac like spaces called utricle and saccule

Vestibule Function

Movement of the head bends the sensory hairs in the 2 sacs

Generates nerve impulses that give the brain information about the postion of the head

Semicircular Canals

Located opposite the vestibules from the cochlea

- contain fluid filled membranous tubes