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99 Cards in this Set

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albumin
ptotein in blood; maintains the proper amount of water in the blood
anisocytosis
an abnormality of red blood cells; they are of unequal size
antibody
protein (immunoglobulin) produced by lymphocytes in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens. An antibody is specific to an antigen and inactivates it.
anticoagulant
a substance that hinders coagulation
antigen
substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of an antibody
basophil
white blood cell containing granules that stain blue; associated with release of histamine and heparin
bilirubin
orange yellow pigment in bile; formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die
coagulation
blood clotting
coagulopathy
disease or condition affecting the bloods ability to coagulate
colony stimulating factor (CSF)
protein that stimulates the growth and proliferation of white blood cells (granulocytes)
cytology
the study of cells
differentiation
change in structure and function of a cell as it matures; specialization
electrophoresis
carrying, transmitting electricity
eosinophil
white blood cell containing granules that stain red; associated with allergic reactions
eosinophilia
abnormal increase in eosinophils
erythroblast
immature red blood cell
erythrocyte
red blood cell
erythropoiesis
the production of red blood cells (as from the bone marrow)
erythropoietin (EPO)
hormone secreted by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell formation
fibrin
protein threads that for the basis of a blood clot
fibrinogen
plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
globulin
plasma protein; alpha, beta, and gamma (immune) globulins are examples
granulocyte
white blood cell with numerous dark staining granules; eosinophil, neutrophil and basophil
granulocytopenia
deficiency of blood granulocytes
hematopoiesis
formation of blood cells or of blood cells in the living body
hemoglobin
blood protein containing iron; carries oxygen in red blood cells
hemoglobinopathy
disease or condition of the hemoglobin
hemolysis
destruction or breakdown of blood (red blood cells)
hemostasis
stoppage of blood flow
heparin
anticoagulant found on blood and tissue cells
hypochromic
deficiency of hemoglobin in the red blood cells
immune reaction
response of the immune system to foreign invasion
immunoglobulin
protein (globulin) with antibody activity; examples are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, IgD.
leukopheresis
apheresis used to remove white blood cells (as in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
leukocyte
white blood cell
leukopenia
condition where white blood cells circulating in the body are abnormally low
lymphocyte
mononuclear leukocyte that produces antibodies
macrocytosis
abnormal condition of erythrocytes that are larger than normal
macrophage
monocyte that migrates from the blood to tissue spaces. As a phagocyte, it engulfs foreign material and debris
megakaryocyte
large platelet precursor cell found in the bone marrow
microcytosis
anormal condition of erythrocytes that are smaller than normal
monoblast
immature monocyte
monocyte
leukocyte with one large nucleus. It is a cell that engulfs foreign material and debris. Monocytes become macrophages as they leave the blood and enter body tissue
mononuclear
pertaining to a cell (leukocyte) with a single round nucleus; lymphocytes and monocytes are mononuclear leukocytes
morphology
study of the form and shape of animals and plants
myeloblast
immature bone marrow cell that is the forerunner of granulocytes
myelodysplasia
a developmental anomaly of the spinal cord
myeloid
of or relating to the spinal cord or bone marrow
myelopoiesis
production of blood cells in bone marrow
neutropenia
leukopenia in which the decrease in white blood cells is chiefly in neutrophils
neutrophil
granulocytic leukocyte formed in bone marrow. it is a phagocytic tissue fighting cell. Also called a polymorphonuclear leukocyte
neutrophilia
leukocytosis in which the increase in white blood cells is chiefly in neutrophils
pancytopenia
an abnormal reduction in the numer of red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets in the blood
phagocyte
a cell that engulfs and consumes foreign material and debris
plasma
liquid portion of blood; contains water, proteins, salts, nutrients, hormones, and vitamins
plasmapheresis
removal of plasma from withdrawn blood by centrifuge. Collected cells are retransfused back into the donor. Fresh frozen plasma or salt solution is used to replace withdrawn plasma
platelet
small blood fragment that collects at sites of injury to begin the clotting process
plateletpheresis
apheresis used to remove blood platelets (as in the treatment of thrombocytosis or in the collection of platelets for use in transfusion)
poikilocytosis
a condition characterized by the presence of poikilocytes in the blood
polymorphonuclear
having the nucleus complexly lobed
prothrombin
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
reticulocyte
immature erythrocyte. A network of strands (reticulin) is seen after staining the cell with special dyes
Rh factor
antigen on red blood cells of Rh positive (RH+) individuals. The factor was first identifiedin the blood of a rhesus monkey
serum
plasma minus clotting proteins and cells. Clear, yellowish fluid that separates from blood when it is allowed to clot. It is formed from plasma, but does not contain protein coagulation factors
sideropenia
iron deficiency in the blood serum
stem cell
unspecialized cell that gives rise to mature, specialized forms. A hematopoietic stem cell is the progenitor for all different types of blood cells
thrombin
enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
thrombocyte
platelet
thrombocytopenia
persistant decrease in the number of blood platelets that is often associated with hemorrhagic conditions
thrombolytic therapy
used to dissolve clots
thrombosis
formation or presence of a blood clot within a blood vessel
acute lymphocytic leukemia
immature lymphocytes (lymphoblasts) predominate. This form is seen most often in children and adolescents; onset is sudden
acute myelogenous leukemia
immature granulocytes (myelolasts)predominate. Platelets and erythrocyres are diminished because of infiltration and replacement of the bone marrow by large numbers of myeloblasts
anemia
deficiency in erythrocytes or hemoglobin
antiglobulin test
test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage erythrocytes
apheresis
seperation of blood into component parts and removal of a select portion from the blood
aplastic anemia
failure of blood cell production in the bone marrow
autologous transfusion
collection and later reinfusion of a patient's own blood or blood components
bleeding time
time required for blood to stop flowing from a tiny puncture wound
blood transfusion
whole blood or cells are taken from a donor and infused into a patient
bone marrow biopsy
microscopic examination of a core of bone marrow removed with a needle
chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)
abnormal numbers of relatively mature lymphocytes predominate in the marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen. This most common form of leukemia usually occurs in the elderly and follows a slowly progressive course. It often does not require immediate treatment.
chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)
both mature and immature granulocytes are present in large numbers in the marrow and bloodstream. This is a slowly progressive illness with which patients (often older than 55) may live for many years without encountering life threatening problems.
coaglution time
time required for venous blood to clot in a test tube
complete blood count (CBC)
determination of numbersof blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, and red cell values
dyscrasia
abnormal condition of the blood, disease
ecchymoses
large blue or purplish patches on the skin (bruises)
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma
granulocytosis
abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood
hematocrit (Hct)
percentage of erythrocytes in a volume of blood
hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
peripheral stem cells from a compatible donor ate administered to a recipient
hemochromatosis
excess iron deposits throughout the body
hemoglobin test (H, Hg, Hgb, HGB)
total amount of hemoglobin in a sample of peripheral blood
hemolytic anemia
reduction in red cells due to excessive destruction
hemophilia
excessive bleeding caused by hereditary lack of blood clotting factors necessary for blood clotting
intrinsic factor
substance found in gastric juices, needed to absorb vitamin B12
leukemia
increase in cancerous white blood cells
mononucleosis
infectious disease marked by increased number of leukocytes and enlarged cervical lymph nodes
multiple myeloma
malignant neoplasm of bone marrow