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106 Cards in this Set

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fulguration

Destruction of tissue using a high-frequency electrical current

genitalia

The sex, or reproductive, organs visible on the outside of the body

gestation

The length of time from conception to birth

glans

Small, rounded mass or glandlike body; erectile tissue at the ends of theclitoris and the penis

lactation

Production and release of milk by mammary glands

orifice

Mouth; entrance or outlet of any anatomic structure

puerperium

Time after childbirth that lasts approximately 6 weeks, during which theanatomic and physiological changes brought about by pregnancy resolveand a woman adjusts to the new or expanded responsibilities of motherhoodand nonpregnant life

viable

Capable of sustaining life; denotes a fetus sufficiently developed to liveoutside of the uterus

amni/o

amnion (amnioticsac)

cervic/o

neck; cervix uteri(neck of uterus)

colp/o


vagin/o

vagina

galact/o


lact/o

milk

gynec/o

woman, female

hyster/o

uterus (womb)

mamm/o


mast/o

breast

men/o

menses,menstruation

metri/o


uter/o

uterus (womb)

metr/o

uterus (womb);measure

nat/o

birth

oophor/o


ovari/o

ovary

perine/o

perineum

salping/o

tube (usually fallopianor eustachian[auditory] tubes)

-arche

beginning

-cyesis

pregnancy

-gravida

pregnant woman

-para

to bear (offspring)

-salpinx

tube (usually fallopianor eustachian[auditory] tubes)

-tocia

childbirth, labor

-version

turning

ante-

before, in front of

dys-

bad; painful; difficult

endo-

in, within

multi-

many, much

post-

after

primi-

first

adnexa

Accessory parts of a structure

atresia

Congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening, such asthe vagina

choriocarcinoma

Malignant neoplasm of the uterus or at the site of an ectopicpregnancy




chori/o: chorion


carcin: cancer


-oma: tumor

corpus luteum

Ovarian scar tissue that results from rupturing of a follicle duringovulation and becomes a small yellow body that produces progesteroneafter ovulation

contraceptive diaphragm

Contraceptive device consisting of a hemisphere of thin rubberbonded to a flexible ring; inserted into the vagina together withspermicidal jelly or cream up to 2 hours before coitus so that spermatozoacannot enter the uterus, thus preventing conception

dyspareunia

Occurrence of pain during sexual intercourse

endocervicitis

Inflammation of the mucous lining of the cervix uteri




endo-: in, within


cervic: neck; cervix uteri(neck of the uterus)


-itis: inflammation

fibroids

Benign uterine tumors composed of muscle and fibrous tissue; alsocalled leiomyomas (myomas) and fibromyoma uteri




fibr: fiber, fibrous tissue


-oids: resembling

infertility

Inability or diminished ability to produce offspring

hormonal contraception

Use of hormones to suppress ovulation and prevent conception

oral contraceptivepills (OCPs)

Birth control pills containing estrogen and progesterone in varyingproportions

menarche

Beginning of menstrual function




men: menses, menstruation


-arche: beginning

oligomenorrhea

Scanty or infrequent menstrual flow




olig/o: scanty


men/o: menses, menstruation


-rrhea: discharge, flow



perineum

Region between the vulva and anus that constitutes the pelvic floor

puberty

Period during which secondary sex characteristics begin to developand the capability of sexual reproduction is attained

pyosalpinx

Pus in the fallopian tube




py/o: pus


-salpinx: tube (usually fallopianor eustachian [auditory] tubes)

retroversion

Turning or state of being turned back, especially an entire organ,such as the uterus, being tipped from its normal position




retro-: backward, behind


-version: turning

sterility

Inability of the female to become pregnant or the male to impregnatethe female

vaginismus

Painful spasm of the vagina from contraction of the musclessurrounding the vagina

abruptio placentae

Premature separation of a normally situated placenta

abortion

Termination of pregnancy before the embryo or fetus is capable ofsurviving outside the uterus

amnion

Membrane, continuous with and covering the fetal side of theplacenta, that forms the outer surface of the umbilical cord

breech presentation

Common abnormality of delivery in which the fetal buttocks or feetpresent rather than the head

Down syndrome, trisomy 21

Congenital condition characterized by physical malformations andsome degree of mental retardation

dystocia

Difficult labor, which may be produced by the large size of the fetusor the small size of the pelvic outlet




dys-: bad; painful; difficult


-tocia: childbirth, labor

eclampsia

Most serious form of toxemia during pregnancy

ectopic pregnancy

Pregnancy in which the fertilized ovum does not reach the uterinecavity but becomes implanted on any tissue other than the lining ofthe uterine cavity, such as a fallopian tube, an ovary, the abdomen,or even the cervix uteri

gravida

Pregnant woman

multigravida

Woman who has been pregnant more than once




multi-: many, much


-gravida: pregnant woman

multipara

Woman who has delivered more than one viable infant




multi-: many, much


-para: to bear (offspring)

para

Woman who has given birth to one or more viable infants

parturition

Process of giving birth

pelvimetry

Measurement of the pelvic dimensions or proportions, which helpsdetermine whether it will be possible to deliver a fetus through thenormal route




pelv/i: pelvis


-metry: act of measuring

placenta previa

Condition in which the placenta is attached near the cervix andruptures prematurely, with spotting as the early symptom

primigravida

Woman pregnant for the first time




primi-: first


-gravida: pregnant woman

primipara

Woman who has given birth to one viable infant, her first child,indicated by the notation para I on the patient’s chart




primi-: first


-para: to bear (offspring)

puerperium

Period of 42 days after childbirth and expulsion of the placenta andmembranes, during which the reproductive organs usually returnto normal

amniocentesis

Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac under ultrasoundguidance using a needle and syringe to remove amniotic fluid




amni/o: amnion (amniotic sac)


-centesis: surgical puncture

insufflation

Delivery of pressurized air or gas into a cavity, chamber, or organto allow visual examination, remove an obstruction, or applymedication

insufflation tubal

Test for patency of the uterine tubes made by transuterine insufflationwith carbon dioxide; also called Rubin test

colposcopy

Visual examination of the vagina and cervix with an opticalmagnifying instrument (colposcope)




colp/o: vagina


-scopy: visual examination

laparoscopy

Visual examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscopethrough one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall,usually at the umbilicus




lapar/o: abdomen


-scopy: visual examination

chorionic villus sampling(CVS)

Sampling of placental tissues for prenatal diagnosis of potentialgenetic defects

endometrial biopsy

Removal of a sample of uterine endometrium for microscopicstudy




endo-: in, within


metri: uterus(womb); measure


-al: pertaining to, relating to

Papanicolaou (Pap) test

Cytological study used to detect abnormal cells sloughed fromthe cervix and vagina, usually obtained during routine pelvicexamination

mammography

Radiographic examination of the soft tissues of the breast

hysterosalpingography

Radiography of the uterus and uterine tubes (oviducts) followinginjection of a contrast medium




hyster/o: uterus (womb)


salping/o: tube (usually fallopianor eustachian [auditory] tubes)


-graphy: process of recording-gram: record, writing



ultrasonography

Process by which high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound)produce and display an image from reflected “echoes” on amonitor; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo.




ultra-: excess, beyond


son/o: sound


-graphy: process of recording

ultrasonography pelvic

Ultrasound of the pelvic region used to evaluate abnormalities inthe female reproductive system as well as the fetus in the obstetricpatient

ultrasonography transvaginal

Ultrasound of the pelvic area performed with a probe insertedinto the vagina, which provides sharper images of pathologicaland normal structures within the pelvis




trans-: through, across


vagin: vagina


-al: pertaining to, relating to

cerclage

Procedure in which a nonabsorbable ligature is applied aroundthe cervix uteri to treat incompetent uterus, thus decreasing thechance of a spontaneous abortion

cesarean birth

Incision of the abdomen and uterus to remove the fetus; alsocalled C-section

colpocleisis

Surgical closure of the vaginal canal




colp/o: vagina


-cleisis: closure

conization

Excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue, such as mucosa of thecervix, for histological examination

cordocentesis

Sampling of fetal blood drawn from the umbilical vein andperformed under ultrasound guidance

cryosurgery, cryocautery

Process of freezing tissue to destroy cells

dilatation and curettage(D&C)

Widening of the cervical canal with a dilator and scraping of theuterine endometrium with a curette

episiorrhaphy

Repair of a lacerated vulva or an episiotomy




episi/o: vulva


-rrhaphy: suture

episiotomy

Incision of the perineum from the vaginal orifice; usually doneto prevent tearing of the tissue and to facilitate childbirth




episi/o: vulva


-tomy: incision

hysterectomy

Excision of the uterus




hyster: uterus (womb)


-ectomy: excision, remova

hysterectomy subtotal

Hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubesremain

hysterectomy total (complete)

Hysterectomy where the cervix is removed but the ovaries andfallopian tubes remain

hysterectomy total (complete) plus bilateralsalpingo-oophorectomy

Total hysterectomy, including uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, andovaries

intrauterine device (IUD

Plastic or metal object placed inside the uterus to preventimplantation of a fertilized egg in the uterine lining

lumpectomy

Excision of a small primary breast tumor that leaves the remainderof the breast intact

mammoplasty, mastoplasty

Surgical reconstruction of the breast(s), sometimes augmentedby substances such as fat tissue or silicone to alter size and shape




mamm/o: breast


-plasty: surgical repair

mastectomy

Excision of the breast




mast: breast


-ectomy: excision, removal



radicalmastectomy

Removal of the breast and any involved skin, pectoral muscles,axillary lymph nodes, and subcutaneous fat

myomectomy

Excision of a myomatous tumor, generally uterine




my/o: muscle


-ectomy: excision, removal

salpingo-oophorectomy

Excision of an ovary and fallopian tube




salping/o: tube (usually fallopianor eustachian [auditory tubes)


oophor: ovary


-ectomy: excision, removal

tubal ligation

Procedure that ties (ligates) the uterine tubes to prevent pregnancy