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36 Cards in this Set

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rests primarily on whether a person is aware of the consequences of his or her actions and can control his or her behavior
mental disorder
any clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome characterized by the presence of distressing symptoms, impairment of functioning, or significantly increased risk of suffering death, pain, disability, or loss of freedom. Mental disorders are assumed to be the manifestation of a behavioral, psychological, or biological dysfunction in the individual. The concept does not include deviant behavior, disturbances that are essentially conflicts between the individual and society, or expected and culturally sanctioned responses to particular events.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. A manual, published by the American Psychiatric Association, that provides standardized criteria for the diagnosis of psychiatric conditions, including alcohol and drug use disorders. The current edition, published in 1994 is the 4th edition, called DSM-IV
projective tests
a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts. This is different from an "objective test" in which responses are analyzed according to a universal standard (for example, a multiple choice exam) rather than an individual psychiatrist's judgement.
Rorschach Inkblot Test
A projective (unstructured) technique of personality assessment that requires the examinee to look at a series of inkblots and report everything she sees in them.
objective tests
An examination in which questions requiring a very short answer are posed. It can be multiple choice, true-false, fill-in-the-blank, etc. The questions are related to facts (thus objective) rather than to opinions (or subjective).
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
a self-report personality inventory consisting of 550 items that describe feelings or actions which the person is asked to agree with or disagree with; many scales estimating traits and qualities of personality have been developed using MMPI items

A widely used instrument for assessing personality, the MMPI is often used as part of the initial assessment of pathological gamblers.
generalized anxiety disorder
an anxiety disorder characterized by the presence of excessive, uncontrollable anxiety and worry about two or more life circumstances, for six months or longer, accompanied by some combination of restlessness, fatigue, muscle tension, irritability, disturbed concentration or sleep, and somatic symptoms.
posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD
an anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images
panic disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent unexpected panic attacks accompanied by bodily or cognitive symptoms (such as shaking, shortness of breath, or feelings of unreality) followed by worry about their recurrence, implications, or consequences or by a change in behavior related to the panic attacks (a feeling of over whelming fear or dread)
An obsessive, persistent, unrealistic fear of an object or situation
social phobia
any phobia (other than agoraphobia) associated with situations in which you are subject to criticism by others (as fear of eating in public or public speaking etc)
Irrational fear of being in a situation where escape is difficult or impossible.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
an anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent obsessions or compulsions, which are severe enough to interfere significantly with personal or social functioning.
mood disorder
any acute or chronic emotional disorder; including anxiety disorders and depressive disorders.
major depression
is a serious disorder marked by sadness, fatigue, changes in sleep patterns, difficulty thinking and concentrating, changes in appetite, feelings of dejection and hopelessness, and sometimes suicidal thoughts.
A mood disorder characterized by pathological over-excitement.
bipolar disorder
characterized by moods that alternate between mania (feeling indestructible, hyperactive and overly self-confident) and depression (feeling intensely sad and hopeless). The periods of mania and depression vary in length and are unpredictable. Periods of mania usually follow longer periods of depression.
vulnerability-stress model of depression
approaches that emphasize how individual vulnerabilities (e.g. in genes or personality traits) interact with external stresses/circumstances to produce mental disorders
personality disorders
haracterized by rigid, maladaptive personality petterns that cause personal distress or inability to get along with others. There are 10 different personality disorders, 3 of which are: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder (OCPD), and schizoid personality disorder.
paranoid personality disorder
persons with this disorder are often cold, distant, and unable to form close, interpersonal relationships. Often overly, yet unjustifiably, suspicious of their surroundings, persons with paranoid personality disorder generally cannot see their role in conflict situations and often project their feelings of paranoia as anger onto others.
narcissistic personality disorder
is a personality disorder that is characterized by extreme feelings of self-importance, a high need for admiration, and a lack of empathy.
antisocial personality disorder (APD)
persons with this disorder characteristically disregard the feelings, property, authority, and respect of others for their own personal gain. This may include violent or aggressive acts involving or targeting other individuals, without a sense or remorse or guilt for any of their destructive actions.
substance abuse
Refers to overeating, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, or drug abuse.
biological model of addiction
holds that addiction whether alcohol or any other drug, is due primarily toa person's biochemistry, metabolism, and genetic predisposition.
learning model of addiction
examines the role of enviroment, learning, and culture in encouraging or discouraging abuse and addiction.
dissociative identity disorder
An uncommon disorder involving a disturbance in identity, in which two or more separate and distinct personality states (identities) influence or direct behavior at different times. Sometimes called multiple personality disorder.
multiple personality disorder
A dissociative disorder in which two or more distinct conscious personalities alternately prevail in the same person, without any personality being aware of the other; typically a dubious diagnosis.
a condition by which certain mental functions are dissociated or "separated" from others, to varying degree; in particular refers to the dissociation of sensory input and emotion from consciousness and memory.
sociocognitive explanation of MPD
holds that this phenomenon is simply an extreme form of the ability we all have to present different aspects of our personalities to others. In this view the diagnosis of MPD provides a culturally acceptable way for some troubled people to make sense of their problems.
A type of psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations and/or delusions, disorganized speech and thought, and social withdrawal.
a mental disorder in which a serious inability to think, perceive, and judge clearly causes loss of touch with reality
positive symptoms of schizophrenia
active symptoms that involve exxagerationg or distortion of normal thinking processes and behavior.
bizarre delusions, hallucinations, incoherent speech, inappropriate/disorganized behavior
negative symptoms of schizophrenia
loss or absence of normal traits and abilities, such as the ability to speak fluently or take care of oneself.
e.g. loss of motivation, emotional speech, brief, empty replies, social withdrawal
word salad
incoherent speech consisting of an illogical jumble of ideas and symbols, linked by meaningless rhyming words or by remote associations
catatonic stupor
s a motionless or apathetic state in which one remains oblivious to external stimuli. Motor activity is limited to near non-existent. Individuals avoid bathing and grooming, make little or no eye contact with others, may be mute and rigid, and initiate no social behaviors. This condition is a feature of catatonia. Catatonia is considered a subtype of schizophrenia.