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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Germinal Stage
-first two weeks after conception
-placenta forms
Embryonic Stage
-two weeks to two months
-vital organs and bodily systems form
Fetal Stage
-two months to birth
-muscles and bones begin to form
physical, cognitive, and social changes throughout the life span
Longitudianl Study
observe one group over a period of time
Cross-Sectional Study
compare groups of participants of differing age at a single point of time
-chemicals and viruses that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm
Fetal Alcohol Syndrom
-problems occuring from excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
-small head
-heart defects
-delayed mental and motor development
Visual Cliff
-psychological apparatus for studying depth perception
Method of "Children of Kauai" study
-longitudinal study
-73 children tested repeatedly from birth to age 46
Findings of "Children of Kauai" study
-1/3 of children functioned normally by age 10
-stable families
-good support systems
-remedial training, health care
-brain circuity is "filled in" after birth
-more stimulating environment
-better fucnctioning brain tissue
-better recovery after brain injury
Developmental Norms
-indicate the median age at which individuals display various behaviors and abilities
Cephalocaudal Trend
-principle of motor development
-head to foot motor development
Proximodistal Trend
-principle of motor development
-center outward motor development
-reach for things by twisting body, learn to just extend arms
-interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures w/out changing them
-involves changing existing mental structures to explain new experiences
Sensorimotor Period
-birth to age 2
-cooridinate sensory input with their motor actions
-pleasurable responses and perform over and over
Object Permanence
recognize the object continue to exist even when they are no longer visible
Preoperational Period
-2 to 7
-water example
limited ability to share another's viewpoint
awareness that physical quanitites remain constant in spite of changes in their shape or apperance
focus on just one feature of a problem, neglecting other important aspects
ability to envision reversing an action
Concrete Operations Period
-7 to 11
-children can perform operations only on images of tangible objects and actual events
-reversibility and decentration
Formal Operatoinal Period
-11 onward
-children begin to apply operations to abstract concepts in addition to concrete objects
Preconventional Moral Reasoning
-external authority
-acts are wrong because they are punished or right because they lead to positive outcomes
Conventional Moral Reasoning
-see rules as necessary for maintaining social order
-win approval from others
-rules are absolute guidelines that should be enforced rigidly
Postconventional Moral Reasoning
-working out a personal code of ethics
-might not follow society rules if conflict with personal ethics
close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and caregivers
What affects the type of attachment that emerges between an infant and its mother?
mothers are associated with the powerful, reinforcing event of being fed
Characteristics of Secure Attachment
play comfortable with their mother around but become upset when she leaves and quickly calmed by her return
Anxious or Resistant Attachment
-appear anxious when mother is near and protest when she leaves, not very comforted when she returns
Avoidant Attachment
seek little contact with mother and are not distressed when she leaves
Disorganized-Disorientated Attachment
appear confused about whether they should approach or avoid their mother and are very insecure
Long Term Consequences of Secure Attachment
-high self esteem
-more postive emotions
characteristc mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
Easy Temperament
-less restrained
-approach strangers, objects without any worry
Inhibited Temperament
-wary of strange things
-high anxiety
How can researchers use habituation, automatic reflexes and physiological changes to study infant abilities?
can look at brain wave/heart waves
Increased heart rate
alarmed or frightened
Decreased Heart Rate
not alarmed
What emotions are found in babies?
What emotions are found in older children
Ability to Discriminate Patterns Measure
infants at 3 months old can make the distinction btwn new and old
Ability to Learn and Remember Measure
-readily learn connections between events and own actions
-recall this connection later
-remember events as sequences of actions with beginnings, ends
Maternal Nutrition during Pregnancy
-low birth weight
-increased risk of heart disease
Illness During Pregnancy
-depends when the mother contracts the illness
-chicken pox
Tobacco During Pregnancy
-reduces flow of oxygen and nutrients to fetus
-increased risk of miscarriage, still birth, prematurity, and other birth complications
Heroin Use During Pregnancy
-born addicited to narcotics
-increased risk of early death
-birth defects
-respiratory difficulties
-birth complications
-poor nutrition
-little stimulation
Universal Adaptability
capacity of infants to detect all speech sounds
Stages of Language Development
-one word stage
-two word stage
-near adult competence
Evidence for Innate Language Capacities
-teaching has little effect
-adults -- poor tutors and models
-children are creative
-non-hearing children create own language
How does conservation affect moral reasoning?
Mature Moral Reasoning
judgment considers both persons perspectives
Less Mature Moral Reasoning
judgment based on viewpoint of just one person
Early Appearing Abilities
-express recognizable emotions as newborns
-detect emotional expressions from others
Social Referencing
using other's emotions to define ambiguous situations
awareness of self as distinct, seperate
When does self-recognition emerge?
-18 to 24 months
-the first step in ability to feel complex emotions
assigning infants caregiving to an adult with different genetic makeup
Antisocial Behavior
Parenting styles: antisocial more likely when parents are inattentive, neglectful
Stages of Antisocial Behavior
Early Childhood:
-poor parental discipline and monitoring
-child conduct problems

Middle Childhood:
-rejection by normal peers
-academic failure

Late Childhood:
-commitment to deviant peer group