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47 Cards in this Set
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What is pressure?

The force per unit area on a surface. (P)


Pressure is equal to...

force/area


What is the SI unit for force?

Newton.


What is the force that will increase speed of a 1 kg mass by 1 m per second each second that force is applied?

Newton. (N)


On earth, ________ has an acceleration of 9.8 m/s^2.

gravity


What is a barometer?

A device used to measure atmospheric pressure. (Evangelista Torricelli)


What is the common unit of pressure?

Millimeters of mercury, symbolized by mm Hg.


A pressure of 1 mm Hg is also called 1 what?

Torr.


What is the average atmospheric pressure at sea level at 0°C?

760 mm Hg.


How are pressures often measured?

In units of atmospheres.


One atmosphere of pressure (atm) is equal to ______ mm Hg.

760


One _________ is the pressure exerted by a force of one newton (N) acting on an area of one square meter.

pascal (Pa)


What is standard pressure?

1 atm.


What is standard temperature?

0°C.


1 Pa = ?

1 N / m^2


What is the pressure of each gas in a mixture called?

Partial Pressure.


What does Dalton's law of partial pressures state?

The total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases.


Patm =

Pgas + PH2O


PV = K

Boyle's Law. P = Pressure, V = Volume, and k is the constant.


What does Boyle's law state?

The volume of a fixed mass of gas varies inversely with the pressure at constant temperature.


P1V1 = P2V2

P1 and V1 represent the initial conditions whilst P2 and V2 represent a different set of conditions.


What is absolute zero?

The temperature 273°C, given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale.


What does Charles's law state?

That the volume of a fixed mass of gas at a constant pressure varies directly with the Kelvin temperature.


V = kT or V/T = k

T = Kelvin temperature
k = constant V = volume 

V1/T1 = V2/T2

V1 and T1 represent initial conditions whilst V2 and T2 represent the different ones.


State GayLussac's law.

The pressure of a fixed mass of gas at a constant volume varies directly with the Kelvin temperature.


p = kT or P/T = k

T = temperature in Kelbin
k = constant P = pressure 

P1/T1 = P2/T2

P1 and T1 represent initial conditions whilst P2 and T2 represent differing ones.


What is GayLussac's law of combining volumes of gases?

At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of gaseous reactants and products can be expressed as ratios of small whole numbers.


What does Avogadro's law state?

That equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.


V = kn

V = volume
k = constant n = amount of gas in moles 

What is the standard molar volume of a gas?

The volume occupied by one mole of a gas at STP.


What is the ideal gas law?

The mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, temperature, and the number of moles of a gas.


PV = nRT

r = constant
you know the rest 

What is the ideal gas constant?

The constant R. It's value depends on the units chosen for pressure, volume, and temperature.


R = PV/nT

(1 atm)(22.414 10L)/(1 mol)(273.15 K)


What does Graham's law of effusion state?

That the rates of effusion of gases at the same temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square roots of their molar masses.


rate of effusion of A/rate of effusion of B = sqrtMB/sqrtMA

.


What does the average kinetic energy of the molecules in any gas depend on?

Temperature and equals 1/2mv^2


Boyle's law states that the inverse relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas is:

PV = k


Charles's law illustrates the direct relationship between a gas's volume and its temperature in kelvins:

V =kT


GayLussac's law represents the direct relationship between a gas's pressure and its temperature in kelvins:

P = kT


The combined gas law, as its name implies, combines the previous relationships into the following mathematical expression:

PV/T = k


Why do gases diffuse?

Due to their constant random molecular motion.


GayLussac's law of combining volumes states that the volumes of reacting gases and their products at the same temperature and pressure can be expressed how?

As ratios of whole numbers.


What is the volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas at STP? (standard molar volume)

22.414 10 L.


Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Avodgadro's law can be combined to create the idea gas law:

PV = nRT
