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75 Cards in this Set

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•The study of the processes involved in goal-directed behaviour.
–goal-directed behaviour is associated with specific emotions.
Factors in motivation.
–internal factors (physiology).
–factors outside (cognitive and culture).
What drives an athlete to training each day?
Example: Myriam Bedard, winner of two gold medals,
–'what drives me most is the passion I have for the sport’.
Instincts and evolutionary psychology: Instinct
The behaviour should have a fixed pattern throughout a species and should be unlearned
–common in other species; in humans the instincts include infants’ innate reflexes for rooting and sucking.
Drives and incentives.
The original instinct theory of motivation is now drive-reduction theory
–physiological need creates arousal driving the organism to reduce it.
–as physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive—an aroused, motivated state.
The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis—the maintenance of a steady internal state.
people are pressed both by the need to reduce drives and by the incentives (positive/negative stimuli).
Hierarchy of the motives:
The importance of goals depends on one’s needs and the social norms.
•Human motives are organized into a hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 1970) .
–a systematic arrangement of needs, in which basic needs must be met before less basic needs are aroused.
-Basic physiological needs must be satisfied first.
-Higher-level safety needs become active.
-Psychological needs become active
Motivation hunger: Eating is both physiological and psychological.
–feeling hungry without any hunger.
–showing restrain despite of hunger.
Physiology of hunger
-A basic sign of hunger is the stomach contractions.
–hunger is also felt because of the body’s physiology and chemistry.
Set point
point at which a person’s ‘weight thermostat’ is set.
Body’s dipping below the natural weight
–hunger increases.
–metabolic rate slows down to restore the lost weight.
–controls our tendency to gain or lose weight.
After losing weight, 90% gain weight back (genetic factors).
–number of fat cells at birth constrain gaining or losing the weight.
Basal metabolic rate
Body’s base rate of energy expenditure.
–to maintain its set point, body adjusts its basal metabolic rate.
Experiments on food deprivation:
The 24 weeks of semi-starvation
–participants stabilize at three-quarter of their normal weight – while eating half of their previous food.
–achieved by physical lethargy; 29% drop in the metabolic rate.
Body chemistry and the brain
-Hunger is controlled in the brain by two opposing centers in the hypothalamus.
-The theories of hunger focus on “neural circuits” that pass through the hypothalamus
These circuits depend upon a variety of neurotransmitters.
neuropeptide Y and serotonin.
Different areas of these neural circuits influence eating (4)
–neural arc (arcuate nucleus) secretes appetite-stimulating and the other centre secretes appetite-suppressing hormones.
–damage to ‘lateral hypothalamus’ (LH) of animals leads to loss of interest in food.
–damage to ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus (VMH) make the animal becomes an eating machine.
-Hormones in hunger
The psychology of hunger:
Social and environmental factors also govern eating
–motivation to eat by the anticipated pleasure of eating.
–availability and palatability of food also regulate hunger.
The psychology of hunger:
Studies at the University of Toronto (Herman et al., 1999).
–hunger increases by exposure to pictures, written descriptions and video depictions of attractive foods.
Body chemistry and environmental factors influence taste preference
•Tense /depressed people prefer carbohydrate rich foods
–taste preferences are also conditioned.
–culture and ethnic background influence eating.
–eating is not time bound in some cultures (Malaysia).
–in some cultures rats, cats, ants, and worms are delicacies.
–Germans eat blood sausage.
–some eat lot of meat others are vegetarian
Natural dislike of unfamiliar things (neophobia).
–with repeated exposure people develop new tastes.
Obesity and weight increase
–adult obesity rate has tripled to 21%.
–adult American obesity rate has doubled to 31% over the last 40 years.
–Australia’s 55% population is overweight.
Stats on Obesity and weight increase
–In Canada, the proportion of overweight people has increased by 60% since 1985 (Statistics Canada, 1999).
–In 2004, 26% of Canadian children and adolescents aged 2-17 were overweight; 8% were obese.
–A study conducted between 2007 and 2009 found 24% of Canadians compared with 34% of Americans as obese (Statistics Canada & U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011).
Body mass index:
Social effects of obesity
Obese face social difficulties and stereotypes.
–slow, lazy, and sloppy; are victim of ridicule, and face job discrimination.
•Social effects of obesity are significant for women.
–less likelihood of getting married, make less money as compared to their slimmer counterparts.
Study of job interviews.
Professional actors when appeared overweight was rated as less worthy of hiring.
–weight bias was more significant for women.
Obesity is associated with lower psychological well-being.
especially among women with a marked increase in depression
•Asian and African cultures regard hubby body a sign of wealth, affluence, health and wellbeing.
Other factors in obesity.
–lack of exercise
-increasing fast food consumption
The physiology of obesity:
-Differences in weight gain irrespective of food consumption
-differences in physiological makeup
Set point and metabolism:
After dieting people dip below their natural weight, over 90% of them gain that weight back
–genetic factors are probably responsible.
–born with different number of fat cells; this constrains how much weight we can hope to gain or lose.
Genetic factors in weight: Twin studies
–more similarity in ‘Body Mass Index’ (BMI) of identical twins reared apart than fraternal twins reared together.
–genetic factors account 61% of variation among men; 73% among women
•Weight and obesity are related to eating habits and attitude toward body weight
Obesity is more common in:
–lower class than upper class women.
–Americans than Europeans.
People from different cultures display different patterns of food consumption.
–immigrants retain their ethnic identity through food.
Surprising opposites:
•Average North American woman weighs more than her counterpart of 40 years ago.
–average Miss America contestants weigh about 15 pounds less
Ideal body image:
-Which image is ideal for your sex?
-Which comes closest to your own body?
Increase in eating disorders during 1960s (Polivy et al., 2003).
–an excessive desire to look slim.
•Genetic predispositions put limits on unrealistic weight goals.
•Pursing unrealistic weight goals leads to physical and psychological problems
Eating disorders (2)
-Anorexia nervosa
-Bulimia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa
a normal-weight person, usually a woman, diets and becomes (> 15%) underweight; starve herself to death
Bulimia nervosa:
episodes of binge eating or overeating followed by purging, vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
Eating disorders occur mostly in weight conscious cultures
–image of ideal body weight changes over time.
–women in every era conformed to these ideals.
-increase in the number of women with ‘poor body image’ over last 50 years.
–‘thin ideal’ is transmitted by fashion magazines and in advertisements.
–in Asia and Africa thinness means ‘poverty’.
–eating disorder are less common among Black women.
–women with low self-esteem have both ‘negative body image’ and ‘eating disorders’.
Perceptions of opposite sex of ‘ideal body image’
–women believed men prefer ‘thinner women’.
–men believed women prefer ‘heavier men’.
Sexual motivation:
Sex is a powerful motivator of human behaviour
nature’s way of species survival
Jokes and gossip about sex
–magazines, novels, movies, and television shows are dominated with sexual themes.
–advertising industry uses sex to sell everything.
–intense interest in sex reflects its importance.
Human sexuality is a mixture of biological, psychological, and cultural factors:
Sex by an average Canadian adult
–around 99 times a year (2 times/week).
–fourteenth-highest among 22 countries surveyed (Durex, 2002).
Research on sex is difficult and the sample has problems
–volunteers in sexuality research may differ from those who do not volunteer (Bogaert,1996)
Physiology of sex
–a physiological motive affected by learning and values
–essential for the survival of a species, but not for an individual’s survival
•The sexual response cycle (arousal, orgasm).
•Humans differ is sex hormones and sex drive
Old myths about women sex were contradicted by Kinsey (1953) and Masters and Johnson (1966)
–women are not sexually motivated as men.
–orgasm was not as important to women.
–female sexuality was more “diffuse” than male.
–women cared more about affection than sexual satisfaction.
Kinsey interviewed 18,000 people.
–most of men and half of women had premarital sex.
–most women but all men reported masturbating.
–masturbating helped women later in marriage.
–some men and women never experienced orgasm; others had four or more a day.
–women have lesser sexual capacity than men
Masters and Johnson findings
–male and female orgasms are more similar.
–women have greater sexual response than men.
–a woman can experience repeated orgasms.
–men are incapable of another orgasm during the ‘refractory period’ after experiencing orgasm.
Masters and Johnson identified four stages of sexual response cycle:
–Excitement phase
–Plateau phase
Sexual disorders:
Impair sexual arousal and sexual activity
–involve sexual motivation, lack of sexual energy and arousability.
–for men these include erectile dysfunction (inability to have or maintain an erection) and premature ejaculation.
–for women, the problem may be pain or orgasmic dysfunction (distress over infrequently or never experiencing orgasm).
–women who experience sexual distress relate it to their emotional relationship with the partner during sex.
–‘hypogonadism’ in males and menopause in females lead to reduced sexual motivation.
–psychological factors also influence sexual desire, especially in women
Hormones and sexual behaviour:
Hormones secreted by the ovaries and testes influence sexual motivation.
–play a critical role in physical development.
Estrogens in females and androgens in males are controlled by hypothalamus and pituitary gland
–contribute to sexual desire in humans.
–sexual desire rises at ovulation among women.
–fantasize more about sex with desirable partners, wear more sexually attractive clothing.
– after sniffing a T-shirt worn by a woman, men display higher testosterone levels if she was ovulating rather than non-ovulating.
Psychology of sex:
Sexual motivation depends on internal physiological factors and is influenced by external stimuli.
•Sexual motivation is influenced by external stimuli.
•Many have sex not for pleasure or intimacy.
–because of feelings of inadequacy or peer pressure
Erotic reading material and pornography can stimulate sexual desire in many people
those exposed to a large dose of pornography developed more liberal attitudes about sexual practices.
Research on the effects of violent pornography
–typically depicts violence against women.
–show women giving in to and enjoying rape and other sexually degrading acts after initial resistance.
–increases males’ aggressive behaviour toward women
Exposure to violent pornography makes sexual coercion seem less offensive
–desensitize males to the horror of sexual violence.
–perpetuates the myth that women enjoy being raped and ravaged.
Canadian statistics on sexual assaults:
•Approx. 24000 sexual assaults reported to police in Canada (Statistics Canada, 1999a).
–minority of reported rapes are committed by strangers.
–date rape is common, a serious problem on university and college campuses.
•Report by Public Health Agency of Canada.
–between 16% and 35% of women surveyed reported at least one physical assault by the partner.
–aggressive pornography seems to be a contributing factor
Imagined stimuli (brain’s role in sex)
–fantasies, beliefs, and values affect sexual drive.
–95% of men and women report sexual fantasies
•Men fantasize more and have more intense sexual desires than women.
–nearly all men and some 40% of women, dreams sometimes contain sexual imagery that leads to orgasm.
–wide-awake people become sexually aroused not only by memories of prior sexual activities but also by fantasies.
Adolescent sexuality:
Adolescents’ physical maturation fosters a sexual dimension to their emerging identity
–sexual expression varies with time and culture.
–Before 1900, mere 3% of American women had experienced premarital sex by age 18.
–now about half of U.S. ninth- to twelfth-graders report having sexual intercourse (CDC, 2010).
Surveys by Statistics Canada (2005) on sexual activities of Canadian teens and adults:
Engaging in sexual intercourse.
–28% of 15-17-year.
–80% of 20-24 years.
•One-third of sexually active had more than one sexual partner in the previous year.
–those having sexual intercourse by age 13, report having multiple sex partners than those who being later.
–girls with weak self-concepts at 13 engage in sex early than those with strong self-concepts.
Sexual attitudes affect sexual behaviour:
Motive to belong: The social need
Spending life alone on a pleasant but deserted island!
–human beings are social animals (Aristotle);
–human beings have “urge to community” (Adler).
•Separation and isolation are painful experiences
A tool for survival
–affiliation need enabled the survival of our ancestors.
–provided survival and reproductive benefits
The affiliation motive is the need to associate with other and maintain social bonds
–close relationships with family or romantic partners contribute to one’s happiness.
–social acceptance increases our sense of protection and feelings of self-esteem.
–conforming to group values protects us against rejection.
–social activities are indicators of our need to belong
The need to belong: Affiliation need
Being with others, expressing feelings and ideas, and getting others' approval.
–an individual's level of need for affiliation can become increased or decreased.
–depends on whether being with others would be useful for the situation or not
Cultural variations in understanding and conceptualizing relationships
–variability is attributable to differences in societal and psychological differences in individualism and collectivism.
–conforming to group standards and seeking to make favourable impressions to avoid rejection
Sustaining relationships.:
Making and ending close relationships is part of our life
–anything threatening or dissolving our social ties causes anxiety, loneliness, jealousy, or guilt.
–the bereaved often feels the life empty and pointless.
–immigrants and refugees moving alone to new places feel stress, loneliness and depression.
–social isolation is a risk factor in mental decline and ill-health
A worst form of loss of social bonds, used to frustrate one’s need to belong
–fear of being alone even leads people to tolerate physical and emotional abuse.
–parents use solitary confinement as punishment.
–social ostracism is the worst form of emotional and psychological harm.
–sometimes people become violent if rejected.
– Children reared in institutions without a sense of belonging to anyone become pathetic, withdrawn, frightened and speechless
Social networking sites
“Web based services that enable individuals to construct a semi-profile within a bounded system, articulate a list of other users with whom they share connections and views”
–“an online community of Internet users who want to communicate with other users about areas of mutual interest”.
–emphasizes relationship initiation, often between strangers, one of the main activities in the course of SNSs usage.
–opportunities available through this networks may help the students in a positive manner; can be channelled into helping others.
SNS and academic performance
“how students deal with their studies and how they cope with or accomplish different tasks given to them by their teachers”
–friendship networks necessitates access to information and knowledge directly and indirectly and affect students’ academic performance positively.
–depends on one’s ability to harness the opportunity to cope with academic related stress
–harnessing the opportunities available networks can be channelled into helping others.
–high ingenuity on social networks to making lots of friends may also be translated into academic success.
Motivation and work:
Healthy life is filled by love and work (Freud)
–a search for daily meaning, bread and recognition.
–lower well-being of unemployed in industrialized countries.
–people with excess leisure time feel purposeless
Goal setting is important for motivation
Goals depend on one’s values, belief system and the importance of specific goals
–intrinsically motivated care less about the material rewards.
–extrinsically motivated work because of material gains.
People vary in their attitudes toward work
–viewing work as a job, an unfulfilling but necessary way to make money.
–viewing work as a career, an opportunity to advance from one position to a better position.
–viewing work as a calling, a fulfilling and socially useful activity
Experience of flow in work
Artists who spent hours painting or sculpting with enormous concentration
–worked as if nothing else mattered, and then, when finished, they promptly forgot about it.
–driven less by the external rewards of producing art-money, praise, promotion than by the intrinsic rewards of creating the work.
Experience of flow in work:
Changing work conditions
–more work is outsourced to temporary employees and consultants, done by workers at remote locations.
–The impact of changing work conditions on mutual obligations between workers and employers?
Achievement motivation:
The need to endure hardship to achieve the goals
The achievement motive.
–to master difficult challenges.
-to outperform others.
–to meet high standards of excellence.
•Working hard on a task depends on one’s expectation of success and how much one values the task.
People with high achievement motivation achieve more
Study of children with I.Q. scores in the top 1%.
–the differences between the most and least successful professionally were the motivational difference.
– successful were more ambitious, energetic, and persistent.
–self-discipline is a good predictor of school performance
•Passionate dedication to an ambitious, long-term goal distinguishes successful individuals from their equally talented peers.
McClelland assigns great importance to achievement motivation
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and achievement motivation (McClelland).
–TAT is comprised of pictures (projective test).
–expressing inner feelings and interests through the stories one makes up about ambiguous scenes.