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54 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The force that moves people to behave, think, and feel the way they do
An innate (unlearned) biological pattern of behavior that is assumed to be universal throughout a species
Sign Stimulus
Something in the environment that turns on a fixed pattern of behavior.
Drive Reduction Theory
As a drive becomes stronger, we are motivated to reduce it.
An aroused state that occurs because of a physiological need.
A deprivation that energized the drive to eliminate or reduce the deprivation
The body's tendency to maintain an equilibrium, or steady state or balance.
Optimum Arousal Theory
Suggests that there should be a level of arousal that is ideal for facilitating goal attainment.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
The psychological principle stating that performance is best under conditions of moderate arousal rather than either low or high arousal.
Learning to perform a task so well that it becomes automatic
Psychological Inquiry: Obeying the Yerkes-Dodson Law
It is a graph that displays the relationship between arousal (shown on the X axis) and performance (shown on the Y axis). The curve is in the form of an inverted U called a Bell curve.
Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's theory that human needs must be satisfied in the following sequence: physiological needs, safety, love and belongingness, esteem, and self-actualization
The motivation to develop one's full potential as a human being- the highest and most elusive of Maslow's proposed needs.
Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory
Theory asserting that all humans have three basic, innate organismic needs: competence, relatedness, and autonomy.
Organismic Needs
That psychological needs are innate and exist in every person. They are basic to human growth and functioning.
Met when we feel that we are able to bring about desired outcomes
The belief that you have the competence to accomplish a given goal or task
The sense that you can gain skills and overcome obstacles
The need to engage in warm relations with other people. Reflected in the importance of parents nurturing children's development.
The sense that we are in control of our own life. The feeling that one's behavior is self-motivated and emerging from genuine interest.
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation based on internal factors such as organismic needs (competence, relatedness, and autonomy), as well as curiosity, challenge, and fun.
Extrinsic Motivation
Motivation that involves external incentives such as rewards and punishments
Critical Controversy: Do Extrinsic Rewards Undermine Intrinsic Motivation?
The basic principles of operant conditioning tell us that rewarding behavior should increase the likelihood that it will happen again. Yet, research on extrinsic rewards seems to indicate the opposite. Rewarding behavior will reduce the performance of that behavior, as well as the enjoyment associated with it.
The process by which an organism effortfully controls behavior in order to pursue important objectives.
Delay of Gratification
putting off a pleasurable experience in the interest of some larger but later reward.
Walter Mischel's Stanford Marshmallow Experiment
Examined how children managed to delay gratification. They placed children in a difficult situation- alone in a room with a very tempting marshmallow in their reach. The children were told that if they wanted to, at any time they could ring a bell and eat the marshmallow. Otherwise, they could wait until the experimenter returned, and then they would get two marshmallows. The experimenter did not come back and the researchers measured the patience of the child.
Feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal (such as a fast heartbeat), conscious experience (thinking about being in love with someone) and behavioral expression (a smile or grimace)
Autonomic Nervous System
System that takes messages to and from the body's internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion.
Sympathetic Nervous System
System that is responsible for rapid reactions to threats. Prepares us for fight or flight response
Parasympathetic Nervous System
System that calms the body, promoting processes of maintenance and healing.
Skin Conductance Level
A rise in the skin's electrical conductivity when sweat gland activity increases.
A machine, commonly called a lie detector, that monitors changes in the body, used to try to determine whether someone is lying.
James-Lange Theory of Emotions
The theory that emotion results from physiological states triggered by stimuli in the environment.
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotions
The proposition that emotion and physiological reactions occur simultaneously.
Neurotransmitters and Emotion
Dopamine and endorphines are linked to positive emotions, such as happiness. Norepinephrine functions in regulating arousal and anxiety.
Brain Structures and Emotion
Limbic system and amygdalae are involved in the experience of positive emotions. The amygdalae also has a role in negative emotions, particularly fear.
Amygdala and Fear: Two Pathways
A direct pathway from the thalamus to the amygdala or an indirect pathway from the thalamus through the sensory cortex to the amygdala. The direct pathway is faster but does not convey detailed information about the stimulus. The indirect pathway carries nerve impulses from the sensory organs to the thalamus to the sensory cortex, which signals to the amygdala and keeps fear association for a long time.
Schachter and Singer's Two-Factor Theory of Emotion
Theory that emotion is determined by two factors: physiological arousal and cognitive labeling.
Richard Lazarus Theory
Stated that we cognitively appraise ourselves and our circumstances and that these appraisals determine how we feel about events and experiences. He believed that thinking was primary and that cognitive activity causes our feelings.
Lazarus believed that emotions depended on this, which are guided by values, goals, beliefs, and expectations.
Robert Zajonc's Theory
He believed that emotions are primary and that our thoughts are a result of them. Argues that preferences need no inferences, meaning that the way we feel about something requires no thought.
Facial Feedback Hypothesis
The idea that facial expressions can influence emotions as well as reflect them.
Kraft and Pressman
Designed an experiment in which heart rate was monitored while participants, who were posing different facial expressions, engaged in challenging tasks. All of the participants were asked to hold chopsticks in their mouths to get them to pose one of three different facial expressions. They were then told to trace a star as many times as possible in 2 minutes. Then they were told to submerge their hand in cold water for 1 minute. Those posing with smiles showed faster heart rate recovery.
Paul Ekman's Universality of Facial Expressions
Revealed that the many faces of emotion do not differ significantly from one culture to another.
Display Rules
Sociocultural standards that determine when, where, and how emotions should be expressed.

Adaptive Function of Emotions

The function of positive emotions can be seen in the quality of resilience- the ability to bounce back from negative experiences, to be flexible and adaptable when things aren't going well. Positive emotions- broaden and build model. Negative Emotions- take immediate corrective action. Resilience- positive outlook, emotional wisdom.

Broaden and Build Model
Fredrickson's model of positive emotion, stating that the function of positive emotions lies in their effects on an individual's attention and ability to build resources.
The ability to bounce back from negative experiences, to be flexible and adaptable when things aren't going well.
Biological Factors in Happiness
A happiness set point- a person's basic level of happiness when the individual is not intentionally trying to increase his or her happiness.
Obstacles in the Pursuit of Happiness
That pursuing happiness for its own sake is rarely a good way to get happy and will most likely backfire.
Hedonic Treadmill
The idea that any aspect of life that enhances one's positive feelings is likely to do so for only a short time, because individuals generally adapt to any life change that would presumably influence their happiness.
Happiness Activities and Goal Striving
Engaging in physical activity, helping others, and engaging in positive self-reflection, experiencing meaning, and to pursue personally valued goals passionately.

Cerebral Hemisphere

Left hemisphere: approach related emotions

Right hemisphere: withdrawal related emotions

Behavioral Expression


Nonverbal facial expression, posture, gesture.