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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

interpersonal attraction

The phenomenon of people liking eachother

Golden Ratio

a ratio that humans are attracted to- certain individuals with certain body proportions

self disclosure

a component of attraction

-sharing one's thoughts, fears, goals etc.

-deepens friendship if here is reciprocal behavior

reciprocal liking

is a phenomenon whereby one person likes another person better if they believe that other person likes them (duh...)


just being physically close to someone, plays a role in our attraction to him or her

mere exposure effect/ familiarity effect

says that people prefer stimuli that they have been exposed to more frequently


a behavior that intends to cause hard or increase social dominance

the amygdala's role in aggression

-part of the brain that is responsible for associating stimuli and their corresponding rewards or punishments.

- in short, tells us whether something is a threat or not

prefrontal cortex roles in aggression?

regulates the amygdala- can put breaks on it in order to avoid impulsiveness and reduce emotional reactivity

-reduced activity in prefrontal cortex can inrease aggressive behavior

cognitive neoassociation model

says we are more likely to respond to others aggressively when we are feeling negative emotions

four main types of attachment

avoidant, secure, ambivalent, and disorganized

John Bowlby

psychiatrist who did attachment study after WWII after noticing the negative effects on social and emotional development on orphaned children.

Mary Ainsworth

expounded on attachment theory saying that infants need a consistent caregiver during first 6 months of life to 2 years in order to explore world and develop right

secure attachment

is seen when a child has a consistent caregiver and is able to go out and explore knowing that she has a secure base to return to

avoidant attachment

results when the caregiver has little or no response to a distressed child. Given the choice, these kids will show no preference between a stranger and the caregiver. They show little distress when caregiver leaves and little to no relief when caregiver returns

ambivalent attachement

occurs when a caregiver has a inconsistent response to a child's distress. sometimes responds well, sometimes doesnt respond well. Child cannot rely on caregiver for consistent response. distressed during separation but mixed response when caregiver returns

disorganized attachement

children show no clear pattern of behavior in response to the caregiver's absence or presence, but show mix of different behaviors-avoidance/resistance, seeming dazed or confused, or repetitive behaviors. Often associated with erratic behavior and social withdrawal from caregiver. May be red flag for abuse

social support

is the perception or reality that one is cared for by a social network.

emotional support

is listening, affirming, and empathizing with someone's feelings

esteem support

similar to emotional but touches more on affirming the qualities and the skills of the person

material support (aka tangible support)

any type of financial or material contribution to another person

informational support

refers to providing information that will help someone

network support

is the type of support that gives someone a sense of belonging


seeking out and eating food and is driven by biological, psychological, and social influences.

the sensation of hunger is controlled by which part of the brain?

hypothalamus- hormone regulation

lateral HT- promotes hunger

ventromedial HT- promotes satiety

mating system

describes the organization of a group's sexual behavior

- humans have immense flexibility in mating system, and heavily influenced by social and biological factors.

mate choice (or intersexual selection)

a selection of a mate based on attraction

mate bias

refers to how choosy members of a species are when choosing a mate

direct benefits of mating

when mating provides material advantages, protection, or emotional support

indirect advantages of mating

promoting better fitness in offspring

phenotypic benefits (mating)

observable traits that make a potential mate more attractive to the opposite sex

sensory bias (mating)

development of a trait to match a preexisting preference that exists in the population ( for ex: fiddler crabs are attracted to things that rise above horizon line since may be sign of food, male crabs build pillars around their territory to attract mates

Fisherian (or runaway selection)

is a positive feedback mechanism in which a particular trait that has no effect on survival becomes more and more exaggerated over time. This trait becomes more and more desirable and more likely to be passed on. (ex: the feathers of a male peacock)

indicator traits

a trait that signifies overall good health and well being of an organism, increasing its attractiveness to mates. Traits may or may not be genetic in origin (ex: cats are attracted to males with shiny coats)

genetic compatibility

the creation of mate pairs that, when combined, have complementary genetics.


a form of helping behavior in which the person's intent is to help another person at some cost to himself.


the ability to experience the emotions of another, though to be a strong influence on altruism

the empathy-altruism behavior

one explanation for the relationship between the 2

-says a person helps another person when they feel empathy for them, no matter the cost.

game theory

attempts to explain decision making behavior (see pg 354)

evolutionary stable strategy (ESS)

When an ESS is adopted in an environment by a population, natural selection will prevent any alternative strategies from arising

The Hawk Dove Game

-classic revolutionary game

-2 players choose either a hawk or dove

-hawk fights aggressively, fights until wins or is injured

-dove- fight avoidance strategy, fight at first but retreat if it gets too much, will also share food

What are the three outcomes of Hawk Dove Game?

hawk- hawk: only one will win, another will lose

hawk-dove: hawk will win invariably

dove-dove: they will share the food

- depending on the size of reward and cost of fighting, either the dove or hawk will be at advantage, this allows both to be in equilibrium with eachother

There are four alternatives for competitors when dealing with strategic interactions

altruism: donor provides benefit to recipient at a cost to him or herself

cooperation: both donor/recipient benefit by cooperating

Spite: both donor and recipient are negatively impacted

Selfishness: donor benefits while recipient is negatively impacted

inclusive fitness

measure of a organism's success in the population

-based on number of offspring and ability of offspring to support others

social perception (aka social cognition)

how we form impressions about the characteristics of individuals and groups of people

-provides the tools to make judgements and impressions regarding other people

three primary components to social perception

perceiver, target, and the situation

perceiver in social perception?

influenced by experience, motives, and emotional state

target in social perception?

refers to the person about which the perception is made

situation in social perception

given social context that can provide information to the perceiver

primacy effect of impressions

the idea that first impressions are more important than subsequent impressions

recency effect of impressions

opposite of primacy effect, the idea that more recent information is more important in forming our impressions about them

reliance on central traits

people tend to organize the perception of others based on traits and personal characteristics of the target that are most relevant to the perceiver

implicit personality theory

states that there are sets of assumptions people make about how different types of people, their traits, and behaviors are related

-attempts to explain the categories in which we place others while forming impressions


making assumptions about people based on which category they are in

halo effect

a cognitive bias in which judgements about a specific aspect of an individual can be affected by one's overall impression of the individual (general impression "I like Judy" can influence more specific evaluations of her "Judy is a good mom, trustworthy etc)

Just-World Hypothesis

a just world where good things happen to good people and bad things to bad people. Noble actions are rewarded and evil actions are punished. Consequences can be attributed to karma.

-strong belief in this just world increases the likelihood of blaming the victim since this world view denies the possibility of innocent victims.

self serving bias/ self serving attributional bias

when we succeed, we tend to attribute this to internal factors but when we fail we tend to attribute it to external factors.

-used to protect our self esteem

self enhancement

focuses on need to maintain self worth

attribution theory

focuses on the tendency for people to infer the causes of other people's behaviors

Fritz Heider

founding father of attribution theory.

-divided the caused for attribution into two main categories:dispositional (internal) and situational (external)

dispositional (internal) attributions

those that relate to the person whose behavior is being considered, including his belief's, attitudes, or personality.

situational (external) attributions

those related to features of surroundings, such as threats, money, social norms, or peer pressure


are used in order to understand the behavior of others

consistency cues

consistent behavior over time, the more regular the behavior, the more we associate that behavior with the motives of the person.

Consensus cues

relate to the extent to which a person's behavior differs from others

distinctiveness cues

uses similar behaviors in similar situations, if a person's behaviors varies in different scenarios, we are more likely to form a situational attribution to explain it

correspondent interference theory

focuses on the intentionality of others' behavior

fundamental attribution error

says that we are generally biased toward making dispositional attributions rather than situational attributions- especially in negative contexts.

difference between stereotype, prejudice, and discrimination?

stereotype is cognitive, prejudice is affective and discrimination is behavioral

stereotype content model

attempts to classify stereotypes with respect to a hypothetical in group using two dimensions: warmth and competence

What are the four classifications of stereotypes in the stereotype content model?

paternalistic, contemptuous, envious, admiration

self fulfilling prophecies

when stereotypes lead to expectations, which then lead to confirmation of those expectations

stereotype threat

the concept of people being concerned or anxious about confirming a negative stereotype about one's social group


defined as an irrational positive or negative attitude toward a group, person, thing, prior to an experience with that entity.


is a way by which organizations and political groups attempt to create prejudices in others

difference between power, prestige, and class?

power: refers to the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite obstacles, control recources

Prestige: level of respect shown to a person by others

Class: socioeconomic status


the practice of making judgements about other cultures based on the values and beliefs of one's own cultures

cultural relativism

is the perception of another culture as different from one's own, but with recognition that the cultural values of a culture fit into the culture itself.

-when a group sees their own rules not as superior, just different


occurs when prejudicial attitudes cause individuals of a particular group to be treated differently from others