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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Apocrine glands

Coiled structures attached to hair follicles found in the underarm and genital areas that secrete sweat.

Arrector pili muscle

Small, involuntary muscles in the base of the hair follicle that causes goose flesh when the appendage contracs, sometimes called goose bumps or papillae.

Barrier function

Protective barrier of the epidermis; the corneum and the intercellular matrix protect the surface from irritation and dehydration.


Glycolipid materials that are a natural part of the skin's intercellular matrix and barrier function


Fibrous, connective tissue made from protein, found in the reticular layer of the dermis gives skin its firmness. Topically, a large, long chain molecular protein that lies on the top of the skin and binds water derived from the placentas of cows or other sources.


Another name for a stratum corneum cell. Hardened, waterproof, protective keratinocytes these "dead" protein cells are dried out and lack nuclei

Dermal papillae

Membranes of ridges in groups that attach to the epidermis, contains nerve endings and supplies nourishment through capillaries to skin and follicles.


Also known as the derma, corium, cutis, or true skin, supportive layer of connective tissue, collagen, and elastin below the epidermis


The structures that assist in holding cells together, intercellular connections are made of proteins.

Eccrine glands

Sweat glands found all over the body with openings on the skin's surface through pores, not attached to hair follicles, secretions do not produce an offensive odor


Protein fiber found in the dermis, gives skin its elasticity and firmness.

Epidermal growth factor

Abbreviated EGF; stimulates cells to produce and heal.


Outermost layer of the skin, a thin, protective layer with many cells mechanisms, and nerve endings. It is made up of five layers: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, and stratum germativum.


A type of melanin that is dark brown to black in color. People with dark colored skin mostly produce eumelanin. There are two types of melanin the other type is pheomelanin.


Cells that stimulate cells, collagen, and amino acids that form proteins.


Hair follicles and sebaceous follicles are tube like openings in the epidermis


Caused by an elevation in blood sugar, glycation is the binding of a protein molecule to a glucose molecule resulting in the formation of damaged, non-functioning structures, known as advanced glycation end products (aka AGES). Glycation alters protein structures and decreases biological activity

Hair papillae

Cone-shaped elevations at the base of the follicle that fit into the hair bulb. The papillae are filled with tissue that contains the blood vessels and cells necessary for hair growth and follicle nourishment.

Hyaluronic acid

Hydrating fluids found in the skin, hydrophilic agent with water binding properties


Hydrolipidic film is an oil-water balance that protects the skin's surface

Intercellular matrix

Lipid substances between corneum cells that protect the cells from water loss and irritation


Fibrous protein of cells that is also the principal component of skin, hair, and nails, provides resiliency and protection.


Epidermal cells composed of keratin, lipids, and other proteins.

Langerhans immune cells

Guard cells of the immune system that sense unrecognized foreign invaders, such as bacteria, and then process these antigens for moving through the lymph system.


White blood cells that have enzymes to digest and kill bacteria and parasites. These white blood cells also respond to allergies.

Lymph vessels

Located in the dermis, these supply nourishment within the skin and remove waste.


Tiny grains of pigment (coloring matter) that are produced by melanocytes and deposited into cells in the stratum germinativum layer of the epidermis and in the papillary layers of the dermis. It is a protein that determines hair, eye, and skin color; a defense mechanism to protect skin from the Sun.


Cells that produce skin pigment granules in the basal layer.


Pigment carrying granules that produce melanin, a complex protein.

Papillary layer

Top layer of the dermis next to the epidermis.


A type of melanin that is red and yellow in color. People with light colored skin mostly produced pheomelanin. There are two types of melanin, the other is eumelanin


Tube like opening for sweat glands to the epidermis

Reticular layer

Deeper layer of the dermis that supplies the skin with oxygen and nutrients, contains fat cells blood vessels, sudoriferous glands, hair follicles, lymph vessels, arrector pili muscles, sebaceous glands, and nerve endings.


Chronic condition that appears primarily on the cheeks and nose and is characterized by flushing (redness), telangiectasis (distended or dilated surface blood vessels), and, in some cases, the formation of papules and pustules.

Sebaceous glands

Also known as oil glands, protect the surface of the skin. Sebaceous glands are appendages connected to follicles


Oil that provides protection for the epidermis from external factors and lubricates both the skin and hair.

Stratum corneum

Also known as the horny layer; outermost layer of the epidermis, composed of corneocytes.

Stratum germinativum

Also known as basal cell layer, active layer of the epidermis above the papillary layer of the dermis, cell mitosis takes place here that produces new epidermal skin cells and is responsible for growth

Stratum granulosum

Also known as granular layer, layer of the epidermis composed of cells filled with keratin that resemble granules, replaces cells shed from the stratum corneum.

Stratum lucidum

Clear, transparent layer of the epidermis under the stratum corneum thickest on the palms of hands and soles of feet

Stratum spinosum

Also known as by me later, layer of the epidermis above the stratum germinativum (basal) layer containing desmosomes, the intercellular connections made of proteins

Subcutaneous layer

Also known as hypodermis subcutaneous adipose (fat) tissue located beneath the dermis the protective cushion and energy storage for the body.

Subcutis tissue

Also known as adipose tissue, fatty tissue found below the dermis that gives smoothness and contour to the body, contains fat for use as energy, and also acts as a protective cushion for the outer skin

Sudoriferous glands

Also known as sweat glands excrete perspiration, regulate body temperature, and detoxify the body by excreting excess salt and unwanted chemicals.


Identify molecules that have foreign peptides and also help regulate immune responses.


Capillaries that have been damaged and are now larger, or distended, blood vessels, commonly called couperose skin

Tansepidermal water loss

Abbreviated TEWL; water loss caused by evaporation on the skin's surface.


The enzyme that stimulates melanocytes and thus produces melanin.

UVA radiation

Also known as aging rays, longer wavelengths ranging between 320 to 400 nanometers penetrate deeper into the skin than UVB, cause genetic damage and cell death. UVA contributes up to 95% of the sun's ultraviolet radiation

UVB radiation

Also known as burning rays; UVB wavelength range between 290 to 320 nanometers. UVB rays have shorter, burning wavelengths that are stronger and more damaging than UVA rays. UVB causes burning of the skin as well as tanning, skin aging, and cancer.