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35 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

General features of personality disorder include (3)

1.Chronic interpersonal difficulties

2.Problems with one’s identity or sense ofself3.Inability to function adequately insociety

what are the DSM Clusters of Personality Disorders (3)

•Cluster A: Includes paranoid, schizoid,and schizotypal personality disorders. People with these disorders often seemodd or eccentric, with unusual behavior ranging from distrust andsuspiciousness to social detachment

•Cluster B: Includes histrionic,narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders. Tend to bedramatic, emotional, and erratic.

Cluster C: Includes avoidant, dependent,and obsessive compulsive personality disorders. People in this cluster oftenshow anxiety and fearfulness.

what is the Prevalence of personality disorder

•10-12% of population has had apersonality disorder in the past 2-5 years

•About three-quarters of people diagnosedwith a personality disorder also have another disorder as well.

•Which cluster is most common?

ClusterC, then A, then B

What are the Difficulties in Diagnosing personalitydisorders (5)

•Misdiagnosis is common- personalitydisorders are not as sharply defined as other disorders

•Criteria such as “goes to excessivelengths to obtain nurturance and support from others” (not as easy to determinethan having a panic attack)

•A great deal of judgment is needed toknow if a person’s behavior meets the standard in each case

•The reliability of diagnosing personalitydisorders typically is not very good

•There is not always high agreementbetween the diagnoses made with one instrument versus another

What are the Difficulties in studying the causes ofpersonality disorders?(3)

•Little is known about the causal factorsinvolved in the development of most personality disorders

•Entered into DSM in 1980, little researchbefore that

•High level of comorbidity makes itdifficult to conduct research 85%of patients qualified for personality disorder qualify for one more

describe the Cluster A personality disorder characteristics

suspiciousness and mistrust/socialdetachment

•Individuals with Cluster A disorders seemodd or eccentric

What are the disorder for cluster A

paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal

Describe traits of Paranoid Personality disorder (10)

•Paranoid personality disorder ischaracterized by suspiciousness and mistrust

•Often reading hidden meanings intoordinary remarks

•They are blameless-blaming others fortheir own mistakes

•Hold grudges

•Quick to react with anger or violence

•Reluctant to confide in others

•May experience psychotic symptoms thatlast from a few minutes to a few hours

•It is equally common in men and women andhas a prevalence of around 1 to 2 percent.

•Little is known about the causes ofparanoid personality disorder (patients don’t trust researchers)

•people withthis disorder are at increased risk for schizophrenia

Name some facts about Schizoid Personality Disorder (11)

•Individuals with this disorder havedifficulties forming social relationships and usually lack much interest indoing so

•No close friends, perhaps one closerelationship

•Unable to express feelings, cold anddistant

•Lack of social skills

•No pleasure in many activities, includingsex

•Rarely marry

•Rarely experience strong positive ornegative emotions

•Chose occupations that allow them to bealone

•lifetime prevalence of around 1 percent

•more common in males than females

•Not much is known about the causes ofschizoid personality disorder, in part because such people have little interestin taking part in research

Name facts Schizotypal Personality disorder (9)


•Social and interpersonal deficits•oddities in their thinking, speech, or behavior

•They may have magical thinking or expressodd beliefs

•Paranoid beliefs

•thought to be part of the schizophreniaspectrum

•lifetime prevalence of around 1 percent

•more common in males than females

•Moderate heritability

•Genetic relationship to schizophrenia islikely

Name some facts about Cluster b Personality disorders (2)

•Share a tendency to be dramatic,emotional, and erratic

•includes histrionic, narcissistic,antisocial, and borderline personality disorders

Name some facts about Histrionic Personality disorder (8)

•Histrionic personality is characterizedby excessive attention seeking and high levels of extraversion

•Feel unappreciated if they are not thecenter of attention

•theatrical and sometimes seductive behavior

•Others around them tire of providing thehigh levels of attention needed to have long and satisfying relationships withthem

•Show dependence on their partners

•Self-centered, vain, and excessivelyconcerned with other’s approval

lifetime prevalence of the disorder isslightly more than 1 percent and it is more common in women than men

•Little is known about the causes of histrionicdisorder

Name some facts about Narcissistic personality disorder

•exaggerated sense of self-importance, aneed for admiration, and lack of empathy for the feelings of other people

•Such people act in very entitled ways

•Unwilling or unable to take otherpeople’s perspectives

What are the subtypes for Narcissistic personality disorder,and explain them

1.Grandiose: grandiosity, aggression, anddominance. Overestimate their accomplishments, underestimate other’s. Associatewith only people who are worthy of them

2.Vulnerable: have a very fragile andunstable sense of self-esteem. Arrogance is a façade for intense shame andhypersensitivity to rejection and criticism. May become completely absorbedwith fantasies of outstanding behavior but at the same time experience profoundshame about their ambitions. Avoid interpersonal relationships due to fear ofrejection or criticism.

is narcissistic personality disorder more common in women or men?


what are grandiose and vulnerable associated with?

•Grandiose NPD is associated with parentalovervaluation

•Vulnerable NPD is associated withemotional, physical, and sexual abuse, as well as by parenting styles that arecharacterized as intrusive, controlling, and cold

what are facts about Antisocial personality disorder (11)

•deceitful, aggressive, and antisocialbehaviorand a lack of regard for the rights of others

•Little regard for safety of themselves orothers

•18+ for diagnosis to be made, butsymptoms must be present before 15

•After age 15, there must be evidence ofrepeated unlawful behavior, deceitfulness, impulsivity, aggressiveness, orconsistent irresponsibility in work or financial matters

•It is much more prevalent in men (around3 percent) than women (around 1 percent)

•Many incarcerated people have antisocialpersonality disorder

•Antisocial behaviorhas its roots in childhood and antisocial traits arethought to be heritable

•Many adverse environmental factors (such aslow family income, poor parental supervision, or neglect) are also implicated

•Genetic vulnerability combined withenvironmental factors

•If a person has an early history of hostile and defiant behavior toward authorityfigures, they are most likely to develop ASPD


Name some facts about Borderline Personality disorder (16)

•characterized by emotional instability,fears of abandonment, impulsivity, self-mutilating behavior, and an unstablesense of self (Self-image)

•People withBPD have intense and stormy personal relationships

•Much suffering

•Feelings of emptiness

•Negative self concept, can’t be alone

•Fear of abandonment



•Suicide attempts are common


•Episodes- out of touch with reality.Hallucinations, paranoid ideas, severe dissociative symptoms

•lifetime prevalence of around 1 to 2 percent

•equally common in men and women

•Psychosocial causal factors (e.g.,childhood adversity) have been identified as increasing the likelihood ofdeveloping borderline personality disorder

• People with susceptible temperaments orthose who are more impulsive and emotional are thought to be most at risk whenthey experience early maltreatment


What are the charaterstics of Cluster C Personality Disorders

•fearfulness andanxiety

•avoidant, dependent, andobsessive-compulsive personality disorder

What are some facts about Avoidant personality disorder(11)

•Extreme emotional inhibition andintroversion

•Limited social relationships andreluctance to enter into social interactions

•Hypersensitivity to, and fear of,criticism and disapproval

•Don’t seek out other people, but want to

•Lonely and bored. Do not enjoy beingalone

•Painfully self-conscious, highlycritical, thinks negatively about self

•Associated with depression

•Feel inept and socially inadequate

•Avoids occupations with manyinterpersonal contact

•Avoidant personality disorder is morecommon in women than men and has a prevalence of around 2 to 3 percent

• There is substantial overlap betweenavoidant personality disorder and generalized social phobia

What are some ways that some with Dependent personality disorder can be identified? (9)

•fearful of being alone and believe theyneed other people to take care of them

•Clinging and submissive behavior

•Feel inept

•Build their lives around others

•Fail to get angry and may remain inabusive relationships

•Have great difficulty making simple,everyday decisions without a great deal of advice and reassurance left

•The disorder is more common in women thanmen with a prevalence slightly under 1 percent

•Individuals high on neuroticism andagreeableness, with authoritarian and overprotective parents, may be atheightened risk for dependent personality disorder

•Aforementioned parenting styles do notpromote autonomy and individuation U

What are some facts about dependent personality disorder(3)

•The disorder is more common in women thanmen with a prevalence slightly under 1 percent

•Individuals high on neuroticism andagreeableness, with authoritarian and overprotective parents, may be atheightened risk for dependent personality disorder

•Aforementioned parenting styles do notpromote autonomy and individuation U

How can you identify Obsessive compulsive personality disorder(7)

•an excessive concern with orderliness andmaintaining control

•People withthis disorder are often perfectionists and this interferes with their abilityto complete projects

•They may also be very rigid and havedifficulty delegating tasks or relaxing in any way

•Very careful attention to rules, order,and schedules

•Even hobbies are taken serious thatrequire perfection

•Have trouble delegating tasks to others


How is ocpd not like ocd?

Ocpd Don’t have obsessions and compulsiverituals

•OCD is more common in men than women,with a prevalence of around 2 percent

What sociocultural factors play into Narcissistic Personality Disorder development?

•more common in Western cultures wherepersonal ambition and success are encouraged and reinforced

What sociocultural factors play into Histrionic pd development?

•less common in Asian cultures, wheredrawing attention to oneself and seductiveness are frowned upon.

What are Treatment and outcomes for personalitydisorders (5)

•Personality disorders can be difficult totreat because they can be very enduring, pervasive, and inflexible

•Don’t believe they need therapy, only goif others insist

•May get angry and create conflict withtherapist

•37% drop out of therapy

•Treatment of BPD is more advanced thantreatment for the other PD

•Cognitive treatmentsfor personality disorders aim to target the core dysfunctional beliefs that arethought to be so central to how the person sees the world and behaves in it

what is Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)

•A form of behavior therapy called Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) isbeneficial for people with BPD. DBT helps patients learn to manage their emotions(deal with negative affect) and develop new coping skills

What is Transference-Focused Psychotherapy

•Other recently developed forms of therapyfor BPD include Transference-Focused Psychotherapy(change “all good” and “all bad” mentality) and mentalization-based treatment(helps patient understand their feelings & other’s feelings).

WHat are some medications used?

•A wide range of medications(antidepressants, antipsychotic medications, and mood-stabilizing medications)are also sometimes used.nafp`:

What are some ways to identify Psychopathy


•lack of remorse or guilt


•callousness/lack ofempathy, glibness/superficial charm, grandiose sense of self-worth

•pathological lying

•antisocial,impulsive, and socially deviant behavior (delinquency/criminality)


•Shallow affect

•Easily bored, lack of reasonablelong-term goals, parasitic lifestyle

Who is more likely to be diagnosed for psychopathy?

•Prisoners more often quality fordiagnosis of a similar disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, due toaggressive behavior. Not as many qualify for psychopathy because they don’texhibit the selfish,callous, and exploitative behaviors. -f

What are Causes/risk factors of psychopaths (4)

•Traits such as callousness or unemotionalseem to be considerably heritable

•Parents of children with these traits ^get angry and frustrated with them, increasing risk of antisocial behavior.

•Psychopaths alsoshow deficiencies in fear and anxiety as well as more general emotionaldeficits such as lack of empathy

•Deficits inlimbic (amygdala) and prefrontal cortex brainareasuagefHc

What are Treatments and outcomes for psyopaths

•Don’t experience distress!

•Some social skills/empathy training canhelp them learn how to conpeople better

•Cognitive-behavior treatments seem to bethe most promising.

Interventions include the following: 1.Increasing self-control, self-criticalthinking, and social perspective taking

2.Increasing victim awareness

3.Teaching anger management

4.Changing antisocial attitudes

5.Curing drug addiction