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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
endocrine system
system made of glands and
tissues that secrete hormones into the blood
Major glands in the endocrine system
Testes or Ovaries
puberty hormones effect________and________
mood and mind
hormones effect.........
induction or suppression of apoptosis (programmed cell death)
activation or inhibition of the immune system
regulating metabolism,fighting, reproductive cycle, fleeing, mating,puberty, caring for offspring, menopause,
Hormone secretion is controlled by ?
Negative Feedback

= as hormone levels rise, they will inhibit (turn off) any further hormone release ensuring hormones stay at normal range
hormones that are not fat soluable and can’t pass through cell membrane without hitching a ride. They communicate with the secondary messenger mechanism.
Protein hormones (non-steroid hormones)
lipid soluable hormones that pass through the cell membrane of the target cell. These hormones can communicate without the secondary messenger mechanism.

steroid hormones
calls for the production of messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which code for the production of proteins.
The steroid hormone-receptor complex
an example of a negative feedback loop is?
heating system
This gland produces the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH),Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH),Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH),. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)(these four hormones are tropic hormones),Growth Hormone (GH), Prolactin hormone (PH)(these two are not tropic hormones)
Anterior pituatary gland
this hormone causes water reabsorption (from urine back into the blood), thereby decreasing urine secretion. When ADH is released, you produce a small quantity of a concentrated urine. It saves water.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
this hormone stimulates the pregnant uterus to contract; may initiate labor. It causes milk release or milk letdown.
these hormones regulate body temperature metabolism and weight
thyroid hormones
substance that thyroid needs to make its hormones
medicine used to treat underactive thyroid
decreases the blood calcium concentration by inhibiting breakdown of bone, which would release calcium into the blood.
Regulates Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)of all body cells
thyroid hormone
Hypothyroidism causes...
low BMR,cretinism, myxedema
Hyperthyroidism (high bmr) causes...
Grave’s Disease
The condition that results from inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones during fetal life or early infancy. The brain and skeleton fail to develop properly, resulting in mental retardation and dwarfism.
occurs when your immune system mistakenly attacks your thyroid gland and causes it to overproduce the hormone thyroxine
graves disease
function of the parathyroid gland(PTH) is?
increases blood calcium concentration by increasing the breakdown of bone with the release of calcium into the blood and by increasing Ca++ absorption at the intestines.
hormones that the adrenal gland secretes
Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine
functions of the adrenal glands are?
to secrete hormones that help the body resist acute stress by intensifying and prolonging the effects of sympathetic stimulation
outer layer of adrenal cortex secretes..........

the main minerlocortoid is aldosterone which increases blood sodium and decreases potassium levels
the middle layer of the adrenal cortex secretes.....

The main glucocorticoid is
cortisol (hydrocortisone) which helps the body deal with chronic stress by maintaining normal blood glucose concentration and increasing gluconeogenesis and fat breakdown
High levels of glucocorticoids can.......
suppress immune system function.
inner layer of adrenal cortex secretes.....
sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen)
the endocrine portion of the pancreas is called....
Islets of Langerhans, which contain alpha and beta cells
hormone secreted by alpha cells. It increases blood glucose levels by accelerating liver conversion of glycogen to glucose
hormone secreted by beta cells. It decreases blood glucose levels by accelerating the movement of glucose into cells
type 1 diabetes millitus is caused by......
no insulin secreted
type 2 diabetes millitus is caused by........
Cells can't use the insulin thats secreted
two structures in the ovaries that secrete hormones are?
the ovarian follicles and the corpus luteum
hormone causes development and maturation of the breasts and external genitals, development of adult female body contours and initiation of the menstrual cycle
Estrogen (feminizing hormone)
these secrete the male hormone testosterone.
interstitial cells of the testes
hormone that causes maturation of external genitals in the male, beard growth, voice changes at puberty and development of musculature and body contours typical of the male
Testosterone (masculinizing hormone)
gland located in the center of the upper chest just behind the sternum.
lymphocytes mature, multiply, and become Tcells here.
gland produces melatonin
The pineal gland
a hormone
That affects the wake/sleep patterns and photoperiod
hormone that stimulates growth of the thyroid gland; also stimulates it to secrete thyroid hormone. It is a tropic hormone.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
hormone that stimulates growth of the adrenal cortex and stimulates it to secrete glucocorticoids. It is a tropic hormone.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
hormone that initiates growth and development of ovarian follicles and the egg, stimulates estrogen production. In the male, it stimulates sperm production. It is a tropic hormone.
Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
hormone that causes ovulation; causes ruptured follicle to develop into corpus luteum and stimulates progesterone secretion. In the male, it stimulates the interstitial cells in the testes to secrete testosterone. It is a tropic hormone.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
stimulates growth by accelerating protein production and fat and carbohydrate quantity. Is greatest during childhood and adolescence.
Growth Hormone (GH)
stimulates breast development during pregnancy. It causes the production of milk and the delivery of the baby
Prolactin hormone (PH)
what are target cells?
cells that are targeted by specific hormones that have that hormones' receptor sites
production of too many hormones
production of too few hormones
mechanism that starts with a hormone being secreted to send a message from endocrine gland to target organ.Protein cells cannot penetrate cell membranes of the organ they are trying to communicate to thus the cell must "hitch a ride" by activating the receptor sites of the targeted cell's membrane causing a secondary hormone to secrete within the cell to complete communication. protein (non-steroid) cells have to do this.
secondary messenger mechanism
these hormones influence activities in neighboring cells.They do not control activites of widely seperated organs and are not typical hormones.
two parts of the pituatary gland are?
anterior pituatary(adenohypophysis)(adeno=gland)

posterior pituatary(neurohypophysis)(neuro=nervous)
where is the pituatary gland located?
sella tucica (small depression in the sphenoid bone)
These hormones are four of the six hormones(the first four)that secrete from the pituatary gland. They stimulate another hormone to grow and secrete its own hormones.
tropic hormones.(The first four major hormones secreted from the pituatary gland)
two parts of the adrenal gland
adrenal cortex (has 3 layers: outer,middle and inner) and the
adrenal medulla
When hormones reach a certain level, they simply stop secreting. This reverses mechanisms in the body.
negative feedback loop
Part of the brain that controls the piuatary gland
the posterior pituatary gland excretes what hormones?
Antidiuretic hormone(ADH) and oxytocin
Thyroid gland excretes......
thyroxine(T4)(4 molecules of iodine),triiodothyronine(T3)(3 molecules of iodine),and calcitonin