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69 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List 6 reasons why microorganisms are important.
1. Most populous and diverse
2. Everywhere on the planet
3. Play major role in recycling essential elements
4. Source of nutrients: some carryout photosynthesis
5. Benefits society: produce food, drinks, antibiotics, vitamins
6. Some cause disease in plants and animals
Microorganisms (and acellular entities) are too small to be seen by the eye. How small are some of them?
Less than 1 mm
Microorganisms are relatively simple. What do they lack?
1. Highly differentiated cells
2. Distinct tissue
Cellular organisms can include...?
1 Fungi (yeasts)
2. Protists (Algae, Protozoa)
3. Bacteria (E.coli)
4. Archaea (Methanogens)
Acellular entities can include...?
1. Viruses (proteins and n-acids)
2. Viroids (RNA)
3. Virusoids (RNA)
4. Prions (Proteins)
What are the two types of microbial cells?
1. Prokaryotic - lacks a nucleous
2. Eukaryotic - has a nucleous are usally are larger
What are the three domain systems of microorganisms (based on the rRNA)?
1. Bacteria
2. Archaea
3. Eukarya
List several characteristics of Bacteria.
1. Single celled
2. Cell wall (peptidoglycan)
3. No membrane bound nucleous
4. They live EVERYWHERE
5. Cyanobacteria produce oxygen
Describe some characteristics of the domain Archaea.
1. Have unique rRNA sequences
2. Lack peptidoglycan in cell wall
3. Unique membrane lipids
4. Unusual metabolic characteristics
5. Can live in extreme environment
List some examples of eukaryotic protists.
1. Larger than bacteria and archaea
2. Algae
3. Protozoa (grazers)
4. Slime molds
5. Water Molds
Protists and Fungi are from what domain?
List some examples of eukaryotic fungi
1. Yeast (unicellular)
2. Mold (multicellular)
Name 4 acellular infectious agents.
1. Viruses
2. Viroids
3. Virusoids
4 Prions
List some characteristics of viruses.
1. Smallest of all microbes
2. Requires host cell
3. Causes range of diseases and some cancers
In simple terms, what are prions?
Infectious proteins
What is the definition of life?
1. Cell and organization
2. Responds to environment
3. Grows and develops
4. Regulates (homeostasis)
5. Reproduces
What is the oldest evidence of archaean life?
Swartkoppie chert (from 3.5 billions years ago)
What is used to study the origin of life?
Indirect evidence and scientific method
What were the earliest molecules?
RNA molecules surrounded by liposomes - which made proteins
Specifcally ribozymes that catalyzed peptide bonds
RNA in modern day cells consists of...?
rRNA, tRNA and mRNA
What is the actual name of ATP?
Adenosine 5' triphosphate - this is a ribonucleotide
Where did the earliest energy sources come from?
Inorganics (molecules w/out carbon)
What was the earliest metabolism process?
Photosynthesis - cyanobacteria 2.5 billion years ago AND stromatolites
The evolution of a specific group of organisms is called what?
How did we come about categorizing the three domains?
1. By comparing their rRNA
2. This difference is "counted" and derived an evolutionary distance
What does LUCA stand for?
Last Universal Common Ancestor
The root of modern life derived from what domain branch?
What two branches evolved INDEPENDENTLY from bacteria?
Archaea and Eukarya (these two evolved from a common ancestor)
The origin of the organelles mitochondria, chloroplasts and hydrogenosomes came about how?
Endosymbiosis (one organism living inside another)
Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a bacterial lineage. Name the bacteria they resemble
Richettsia and Prochloron
What led to selected traits in evolutions?
Mutations of the genetic material
Bacteria and Archaea ______ the genetic pool by ______ gene transfer within the same generation.
increase, horizontal
Do the domains Bacteria and Archaea reproduce sexually?
No: they are referred to as strains
What is a strain?
Desendents of a single pure microbial culture
Strains may be one of four types of bacteria. What are they?
Biovars, serovars, morphovars, pathovars
What formal way do we name bacteria?
Binomial nomenclature
Genus + Species
Who was the first person to observe and describe microorganisms accurately?
Antony van Leeuwenhoek (1632 - 1723)
What is the idea behind spontaneous generation and who was the one who discredited it?
That life can develop from non-life
Francesco Redi (1626 - 1697) maggot on meat from flys
Broth --> Boiled --> Sealed
Will there be life?
Sealed --> Boiled = no life
What is the famous experiement that helped to discredit spontaneous generation?
Louis Pasteurs experiement with long-necked flasks
What were the final blows to spontaneous generation hypothesis?
John Tyndall - dust carries microorganisms. Also proved existence of heat-resistant bacteria
Ferdinand Cohn - heat resistant bacteria produce endospores
What was oringally the thought on the origin of diseases?
That they were supernatural
Name 3 people that illustrated a relationship between microorganisms and disease
1. Bassi: Disease in silkworms caused by fungus
2. Berkeley: Potato Blight caused by water mold
3. de Bary: cereal crop diseases caused by smut and rust fungi
What was Louis Pasteur contribution to associating disease with microorganisms?
Developed pasteurization (killing harmful bacteria at high temps)
Showed that silkworm disease caused by protozoan
What were Joseph Lister's contributions to diseases?
1. Developed a system of surgery to keep microorganisms from entering wounds
2. Developed sugical dressings to guard agains infections
What did Robert Koch establish?
Relationship between Bacillus anthracis and anthrax
What are Koch's postulates?
1. Microganism must be present in every case of the disease but NOT in healthy induviduals
2. Must be isolated and grown
3. When inoculated into a healthy host, the same disease must result
4. The same microorgansim must be isolated AGAIN from the diseased host
What are some limitations to Koch's postulate?
1. Some organisms cannot be grown in pure culture
2. Cannot use humans (unethical)
3. Molecular and genetic evidence may replace
What is a pathogen?
Any disease-producing agent (i.e. bacteria, virus)
Koch's work led to discovery and development of ...?
1. Agar (culture medium)
2. Petri dish
3. Nutrient broth and nutrient agar
4. Methods for isolating microrganisms
What did Charles Chamberland contribute to microbiology?
Developed porcelain bacterial filters to study tobacco mosaic disease: diseased plant (w/ viruses) passed through filters
The heating of cultures for long periods caused pathogens to...?
Lose their ability to cause disease
Pasteur developed vaccines for...?
1. Chicken cholera
2. Anthrax
3. Rabies
What is immunology? Name a scientist associated with this disipline and what he did
The study of host defenses (i.e. against pathogens)
Jenner: Vaccine procedure to protect against smallpox
What did Metchnikoff discover?
Bacteria engulfing cells in the blood (evidence for cellular immunity)
Pasteur demonstrated that fermentation was the result of ______ activity
The "basic" aspects of microbiology deal with what?
Induvidual groups of microbes, their physiology and genetics. Also molecular and taxonomy
The "applied" aspects of microbiology deal with what?
Practical problems: disease, water, food and industrial microbiology
Recent discoveries in this new Golden Age of microbiology.
1. Restriction Endonculeases (they "cut" DNA)
2. Reombinant molecules
3. DNA sequencing
4. Bioinformatics and genome sequencing
List several field of Microbiology
1. Medical
2. Public Health
3. Immunology
4. Microbial ecology
5. Agricultural
6. Industrial
7. Physiology
Medical microbiology deals with...?
Diseases in humans and animals
Public health microbiology deals with...?
The control and spread of diseases
Immunology deals with..?
How the immune system protects a host from pathogens
Microbial ecology deals with..?
How organisms interact with their environment
What % of microbes on earth have we cultured?
Less than 1 %
Agricultural microbiology deals with...?
Food safety
Industrial microbiology deals with...?
Fermentation, antibiotics and food production (cheese)
Microbial physiology deals with...?
Metabolic pathways
Molecular biology, microbial genetics and bioinformatics deal with...?
How genetic infomation regulates the development and function of cells and organisms