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78 Cards in this Set

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Began as a tribe in the Cuzco area. Led by Patchacuti around 1200.
In 2000 BC- 250AD A Mesoamerican society known for their written language, art and architecture
Dominated MesoAmerica in the 14th, 15th, and 16th century.The capital city was Tenochtitlan, on the island of Lake Titicaca.
Chaco Canyon
Is located in New Mexico, and got started in the mid-7th century. Their most notable place is Pueblo Bonita.
Woodland Indians
Between 1000 BC to1000 AD, which existed in North Georgia, where the created inhabited settlenments
mobile societies(Native Americas)
Indigenous people of North America, which lived in hunting-gathering societies.Encountered with the English in trade agreements.
Natives began farming in about 7,000 years ago. They domesticated animals, and harvested crops like corn
Leif Erikson
A Norse explorer who was considered the first European to land on American soil.approximately 500 years prior to Christopher Columbus.
Prince Henry the Navigator
Prince of Portugal, he was responsible for European maritime and world expansions.
Christopher Columbus
A navigator of Genoa, Italy; he also help the Europeans to more awareness of the Americas.
Ferdinand Magellan
A Portuguese explorer, his first expedition was in 1519-1522 across the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
The Conquistadors
term widely used for Spanish soldiers,explorers who brought much of the Americas under Spanish control through the 15th through 19th century.
A Spanish conquistador who led an expedition who caused the fall of the Aztec empire. He brought control of parts of Mexico under Spanish rule.
Fransisco Pizarro
a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Incan Empire and founder of Lima, the modern-day capital of Peru.
Ordinance of Discovery (Aztec)
The importance of this law was to keep track of all political and economic life in newly discovered places.
Catholic Missions (Natives)
A Spanish mission in California, they set up religious and military outposts. Between 1769-1823 spread the Christian word to the natives.
St. Augustine 1565
Pedro Menéndez de Avilés founded in 1565, Spanish explorer and admiral. It lies in the "First Coast" in Florida.
A labor system that was employed by the Spanish.The receiver of the grant was to protect the natives from warring tribes and to instruct them in the Spanish language and in the Catholic faith
Pueblo Revolt 1680
also known as Popes Rebellion, was an uprising of many pueblos against the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the New Spain province of New Mexico.
a Spanish term that was used during the Spanish colonial period in Latin America to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry.
John Cabot
an Italian navigator, who first discovered North America in 1497
Richard Hakluyt
An English writer that is remembered for his efforts of promoting and supporting the settlement in North America made by the English
Doctrine of Predestination
A Calvinistic doctrine that dealt with the question about control God exercises over the world. It also applies this to the salvation, and refers to the belief that God appointed the eternal destiny of some to salvation by grace, while leaving the remainder to receive eternal damnation for all their sins, even their original sin.
The English Reformation
In the 16th century when the church broke away from the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church. It was a religious and political movement which affected the practice of Christianity across most of Europe during this period.
John Calvin
a influential French theologian, he was also a pastor during the Protestant Reform. In 1530, he broke away from the Roman Catholic Church.
Puritan Separatists
also known as Independents; were English Protestants. the Separatists believed that they had been elected by God for salvation and feared spiritual contamination if they worshiped with those outside of their congregations, often referred to as the Strangers.
Elizabeth The First
Was the queen of England since 1558 also known as the Virgin Queen
Coureurs de Bois
was an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities.
New Amsterdam
In the 17th century, it was considered to be the capital of New Netherland.
West India Trading Company
was a chartered company of Dutch merchants.On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the West Indies
Sir Walter Raleigh
An English man who was known for popularizing tobacco in England. He was also involved in the early English colonization of Virginia under a royal patent.
it was a financed and organized by SIr Walter Raleigh, its located in present day North Carolina. Between 1585 and 1587, several groups attempted to establish a colony, but either abandoned the settlement or died.
James the first
He ruled England, Scotland, and Ireland for 22 years, often using the title King of Great Britain, until his death at the age of 58
founded on May 14, 1607.first permanent English settlement in what is now the United States of America
John Smith
remembered for his role in establishing the first permanent English settlement in North America at Jamestown, Virginia
Lord De Lawar
was the Englishman after whom the bay, the river, and, consequently, an American Indian people and U.S. state, all later called "Delaware", were named.
an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants.Upon the arrival of Europeans in North America, it quickly became popularized as a trade item and as a recreational drug.
Virginia Company
English joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America. The two companies, called the "Virginia Company of London" and the "Virginia Company of Plymouth" operated with identical charters but with differing territories.
Headright System
legal grant of land to settlers.role in the expansion of the thirteen British colonies in North America; the Virginia Company of London gave head to settlers, and the Plymouth Company
name of a Virginia Indian;also the name of a powerful group of tribes which they dominated.
Maryland and the Calverts
an English colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen colonies in rebellion against Great Britain
Proprietary Rule
Toleration Act
an act of the English Parliament and dissenting from the Church of England
Bacon's Rebellion
an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon, a wealthy planter. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against Native American raids on the frontier; some historians also consider it a power play by Bacon against the Royal Governor of Virginia, William Berkeley, and his policies of favoring his own court.
Plymouth Plantation
English colonial venture in North America from 1620 to 1691. The first settlement was at New Plymouth, a location previously surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The settlement, which served as the capital of the colony, is today the modern town of Plymouth, Massachusetts. At its height, Plymouth Colony occupied most of the southeastern portion of the modern state of Massachusetts.
Mayflower Compact
first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the colonists, later together known to history as the Pilgrims, who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower. Almost half of the colonists were part of a separatist group seeking the freedom to practice Christianity according to their own determination and not the will of the English Church.
William Bradford
an English leader of the settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died.
Colonial Currency
Because few coins were minted in the thirteen colonies that became the United States in 1776, foreign coins like the Spanish dollar were widely circulated. Colonial governments sometimes issued paper money to facilitate economic activity. The British Parliament passed Currency Acts in 1751, 1764, and 1773 that regulated colonial paper money.
John Winthrop
led a group of English Puritans to the New World in 1630
Theocratic Society
a form of government in which a god or deity is recognized as the state's supreme civil ruler
Roger Williams
an American Protestant theologian, and the first American proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state. In 1636, he began the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Williams started the First Baptist Church in America Providence before leaving to become a Seeker. He was a student of Indian languages and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans.
Anne Hutchinson
a female protestant that wanted to break away from the church. She spoke against the church. Held bible studies in order to interpret the bible, which made her question the authority, which eventually got her kicked out of the town/colony.
Pequot War
1636- 1637 puritan victory over the natives. Puritans won so the natives were moved out of the land. They attacked small villages, with high native populations. 400 Indians were slain, man women & children. The ones that survived were sold as slaves to the West Indies. The puritans used biblical passages to justify the killings.
King Philips War
(1675) the war against King Philip, chief Indian Medicomb: 52 of the 90 Puritan towns were attacked. It was a rebellion. Bloodiest War fought in New England, and ultimately King Philip gets his head cut off.
The Narragansetts
a Algonquian Native American tribe from Rhode Island.
English Civil War
(1642-1649) stops the migration (1630) into the colonies
Middle Colonies
also known as the Bread Colonies or the Breadbasket Colonies for the region's production of wheat, grain, and oats
a movement that began in England in the 17th century,a word that means, "to tremble in the way of the Lord."
William Penn
an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, and founder and "absolute proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U. S. State of Pennsylvania
Charter of Liberties
also called the Coronation Charter, was a written proclamation by Henry I of England, issued upon his accession to the throne in 1100. It sought to bind the King to certain laws regarding the treatment of church officials and nobles
Black Codes
Laws against black slaves ,that forbid them to be educated and learn and teach others to read and write and be illiterate
Holy Experiment
an attempt by the Quakers to establish a community for themselves in Pennsylvania. They hoped it would show to the world how well they could function on their own without any persecution or dissension.
California 1760’s
James Oglethorpe
a British general, a philanthropist, and was the founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer in Britain, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prison, in the New World
is only supporting the mother country England; it however creates a black market in the colonies.
The Navigation Acts
a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England
Sir Edmond Andros
an early colonial English governor in North America, and head of the short-lived Dominion of New England
The Glorious Revolution
Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England
Willaim Bradford
was an English leader of the settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor after John Carver died.
Cambridge Agreement
an agreement made on August 29, 1629, between the shareholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Agreement led directly to the foundation of Boston, Massachusetts.
Church of England (Anglican)
the officially established Christian church[2] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communion's thirty-eight independent national and regional churches
Covenenat Theology
a conceptual overview and interpretive framework for understanding the overall flow of the Bible. It uses the theological concept of covenant as an organizing principle for Christian theology.
Halfway Covenant
a form of partial church membership created by New England in 1662. It was promoted in particular by the Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose. First-generation settlers were beginning to die out, while their children and grandchildren often expressed less religious piety, and more desire for material wealth.
Thomas Hooker
a prominent Puritan religious and colonial leader, who founded the Colony of Connecticut after dissenting with Puritan leaders in Massachusetts. He was known as an outstanding speaker and a leader of universal Christian suffrage. Hooker also had a role in creating the "Fundamental Orders of Connecticut", one of the world's first written constitutions.
Say brook Platform
refers to conservative religious proposals adopted at Saybrook, Connecticut in September 1708. The document attempted to stem the tide of disunity among the established Congregational churches and restore discipline among both the clergy and their congregations. I
Joint Stock company
a type of business entity: it is a type of corporation or partnership involving two or more legal persons.
Cavaliers (1642-1647)
the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651)
John Locke
the Father of Liberalism,an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers.