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44 Cards in this Set

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is an active system that recieves info, puts the info in usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and retrieves the information from sotrage when needed

Memory is a ___________ but it also has a ___________________


but also has a place in the brain

Three process of memory:

1) getting into the memory system( encoding)

2) Keeping it in (storage)

3) Getting it out (retrival)


the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems


holding on to something for a period of time


getting the information they know they have out of storage

Information- processing model:

-this approach focuses on the way that information is handled, or processed, through three different systems of memory

- the processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval are seen as part of this model

Parallel Disributed Processing Model:

-allows people to retrieve memory all at once facilitation much faster reactions and decisions

-memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neutral connections

Information processing model assumes that:

the length of time that a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory it is stored

Levels of processing model:

model of memory that assumes information that is more "deeply processed" , or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time

Sensory memory:

is the first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory system. eyes, ears, etc

Informatin is encoded into sensory memory as:

Neural messages in the nervous system. As long as they are traveling through the system, it can be said that people have a "memory" for that information that can be accessed if needed

Two kinds of sensory information:

visual and auditory

Iconic memory:

often called "visual sensory"

only last for a fraction of a second

Who studied Iconic memory?

George Sperling


when information is pushed out very quickly by new information being proccessed

How long until is replaced by new information?

a quarter of a second

Eidetic imagery:

the ability to access the visual sensory memory over a long period of time

Echoic Sensory memory:

the brief memory of something a person has heard

If an incoming sensory message is important enough to enter consciousness:

that message will move from sensory memory to the next stage of memory called short term memory

Short term memory is held for about :

30 or more seconds

Selective attention:

Is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input

Working memory:

is thought of as an acitve system that processes information present in the short term memory

Three interrelated systems of working memory:

- a central executive: controls the other two processes

- "visual sketch pad"

- a kind of auditory action

The magic number :

seven, plus or minus two


seperating things into chunks to help remember things

such as a phone number

Maintance rehersal:

when we want to remember something we say it over and over

people are simply continuing to pay attention to the information to be held in memory

Long-term memory:

is the third stage of memory

the system in which all the information is placed to be kept more of less permanently

Duration of long-term memory:

there is a relatively permamnent physical change in the brain itself when a memory is formed

Long term memory:

the memory may be _________ but not ________

Available but not accessible

Elaborate rehearsal:

is a way of transferring information from STM into LTM by making the information meaningful in some way

Nondeclarative memory (implicit memory)

memory for skills, because the skills have to be demonstrated and not reported

Declarative memory:

memory for facts, because facts are things that are known and can be declared

Antrograde amnesia

-damage to the hippocampus

- in which new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed

Declarative memory:

is about all the things that people can know-- the facts and information that make up knowledge

Semanatic Memory:

(part of declarative memory)

knowledge that anyone has the ability to know


Episodic Memory:

(Part of declarative memory)

represent episodes from their lives

more likely to be in LTM

Semantic network model:

assumes that information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion model with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related

Fuctional fixedness:

A block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions

Mental set:

Defined as the tendency for people to persist in using problem solving techniques that have worked for them in the past

Confirmation bias:

The tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence to the contrary.


when a problem requires coming up with entirely new ways of looking at the problem or unusual, inventive solutions

Convergant thinking:

a problem is seen as having only one answer and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer by using previous knowledge and logic

Divergent thinking:

is the reverse of convergent thinking

a person starts at one point and comes up with many different or divergent ideas or possibilities based on that point