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44 Cards in this Set

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Osteoporosis

- Decreased bonemass


- Lack of calcium


is a chronic metabolic disease in which boneloss causes decreased density and possible fracture. It is oftenreferred to as a “silent disease” because the first sign of osteo-porosis in most people follows some kind of a fracture.

bone remodeling.

Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly undergoing changes in a process

osteopenia

low bone mass

osteoclastic

(bone resorption)

osteoblastic

(bone building)

bone mineral density (BMD).

BMD determines bone strength andpeaks between 25 and 30 years of age. Before and during thepeak years, osteoclastic activity and osteoblastic activity workat the same rate.

Trabecular, or cancellous

spongy

cortical

(compact)

Generalized osteoporosis involves many structures in the skeletonand is further divided into two categories, primary and sec-ondary.

Primary osteoporosis

is more common and occurs in postmenopausal women and in men in their seventh or eighth decade of life.


- is caused by a combination of genetic,lifestyle, and environmental factors

Secondary osteoporosis

may result from other medical condi- tions, such as hyperparathyroidism; long-term drug therapy, such as with corticosteroids; or prolonged immobility, such as that seen with spinal cord injury

Regional osteoporosis

an example of secondary disease, occurs when a limb is immobilized related to a fracture, injury, or paralysis.

dual x-rayabsorptiometry (DXA)

The most commonly used screening and diagnostic tool for measuring bone mineral density (BMD)


- It is the best tool currently avail-able for a definite diagnosis of osteoporosis

Bone-specific alka-line phosphatase (BSAP)

is found in the cell membrane of the osteoblast and indicates bone formation status.

Osteocalcin

is a protein substance in bone and increases during bone resorp- tion activity.

Osteomalacia

- Demineralized bone


-is loss of bone related to a vitamin D deficiency.


- the adult equivalent ofrickets, or vitamin D deficiency, in children.

oncogenic or tumor-induced osteomalacia

Osteomalacia can alsobe caused by bone tumors

Paget’s disease, or osteitis deformans

, is a chronic metabolicdisorder in which bone is excessively broken down (osteoclastic activity) and re-formed (osteoblastic activity)

osteomyelitis.

Bacteria, viruses, or fungi can cause infection in bone knownas

sequestrum

Thisarea of necrotic bone separates from surrounding bone tissue,and ____ is formed

exogenous

Osteomyelitis is categorized as ________, in which infectious organisms enter from outside the body as in an openfracture

endogenous



in which organisms are carried by the bloodstream from other areas of infection in the body.


-Osteomyelitis is categorized _____

Endogenous osteomyelitis

- also be referred to as hemAtogenous osteomyelitis.


-A third category is contiguous, inwhich bone infection results from skin infection of adjacenttissues.

Acute hematogenous infection

resultsfrom bacteremia, underlying disease, or nonpenetratingtrauma

chronic osteomyelitis

If bone infection is misdiagnosed or inadequately treated,_________may develop.


- The most common type ofosteomyelitis


-Ulceration of the skin


-Sinus tract formation


-Localized pain


-Drainage from the affected area

acute osteomyelitis

- Fever; temperature usuallyabove 101° F


-Swelling around the affectedarea


-Erythema of the affected area


- Tenderness of the affected area


- Bone pain that is constant, localized, and pulsating; intensifieswith movement

Benign (noncancerous) bone tumors

are often asymptomatic and may be discovered on routine x-ray examination or as the cause of pathologic fractures

Tumors may arise from several typesof tissue. The major classifications include

chondrogenic tumors (from cartilage)


osteogenic tumors (from bone)


fibrogenic tumors (from fibrous tissue and found most often in children)

Osteosarcoma, or osteogenic sarcoma,

is the most common type of primary malignant bone tumor.

Allografts

with adjacent tendons and ligaments are harvested from cadavers and can be frozen or freeze-dried for a pro- longed period.

percutaneous cordotomy

Although not commonly done, patients with metastatic disease intractable (not reversible) pain can be surgically treated with ____ _______


-(cutting of the spinal nerve roots).

Cryosurgery

(cold application) may reduce pain and tumor size.

Dupuytren’s contracture, or deformity

is a slowly progres- sive thickening of the palmar fascia, resulting in flexion con- tracture of the fourth (ring) and fifth (little) fingers of the hand.

ganglion

is a round, benign cyst, often found on a wrist or foot joint or tendon.

hallux valgus

deformity is a common foot problem in which the great toe drifts laterally at the first metatarsopha- langeal (MTP) joint


- The first metatarsal head becomes enlarged, resulting in a bunion.

bunionectomy,

involvesremoval of the bony overgrowth and bursa and realignment.

osteotomies



When other toe deformities accompany the condition or if the bony overgrowth is large, several ___________, or bone resections, may be performed.

hammertoe

is the dorsiflexion of any MTP joint with plantar flexion ofthe proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint next to it. Thesecond toe is most often affected


- treated by surgical correction of thedeformity with osteotomies (bone resections) and the inser-tion of wires or screws for fixation.

Morton’s neuroma

or plantar digitalneuritis, a small tumor grows in a digital nerve of the foot.

Plantar fasciitis

is an inflammation of the plantar fascia, which is located in the area of the arch of the foot

Scoliosis

occurs when the vertebrae rotate and begin to com-press


- The spinal column begins to move into a lateral curve,most commonly in the right lateral thoracic area

lordosis,

A loss of lumbar curvature--- described as “flatback” syndrome, may also be present

dystrophin

The major pathologic change that occurs in most types of MD is theproduction or faulty action of a muscle protein called _______

muscular dystrophy (MD)

-