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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

The left side of the heart pumps blood through the __________ circulation, which delivers oxygen and nutrients to all the remaining tissues of the body.



pulmonary


fetal


coronary


systemic

systemic

The right side of the heart pumps blood through vessels to the lungs and back to the left side of the heart through the __________ circulation.




pulmonary


fetal


coronary


systemic

pulmonary

We describe the heart as having left and right sides. Anatomically, the heart is tilted, and the left side of heart is located more ___, relative to the right side of the heart




to the right


inferiorly


superiorly


posteriorly

superiorly

Knowing the location of the heart is important for




positioning a stethoscope to hear heart sounds




placing electrodes to record an electrocardiogram.




effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation.




All of these choices are correct

All of these choices are correct

The epicardium is also known as the




visceral pericardium.


parietal pericardium.


visceral peritoneum.


parietal peritoneum.


exocardium.

visceral pericardium.

What chamber is the inferior and superior vena cava in?

Right atrium

What chamber is the pulmonary trunk in?

Right ventricle

What chamber is the pulmonary veins in?

Left atrium

What chamber is the aorta in?

left ventricle

The __________ has four relatively uniform openings that receive blood from the four pulmonary veins from the lungs.




right atrium


left atrium


right ventricle


left ventricle

left atrium

The wall of the __________ is much thicker than any other chamber in the heart which allows for stronger contractions to pump blood through the systemic circulation.




right atrium


left atrium


right ventricle


left ventricle

left ventricle

The __________ valve is between the right atrium and right ventricle.




tricuspid valve


bicuspid valve


pulmonary semilunar


aortic semilunar

tricuspid valve

During __________ the AV valves open, and blood flows from the atria into the ventricles.




the period of ejection


the period of isovolumetric relaxation


the period of isovolumetric contraction


passive ventricular filling

passive ventricular filing

When AV valves are open during the cardiac cycle it is

ventricular diastole

When semilunar valves are open during the cardiac cycle it is

ventricular systole

When first heart sound during the cardiac cycle it is

ventricular systole

During the second heart sound the cardiac cycle is in

ventricular diastole

During the third heart sound the cardiac cycle is in

ventricular diastole

Which of the following is not true for ventricular systole?




the ventricles contract




the atrioventricular valves close




the semilunar valves open




the ventricles relax




blood flows through the aorta and the pulmonary trunk

the ventricles relax

The atrioventricular valves open during




ventricular systole.


ventricular diastole.


atrial systole.


atrial diastole.


both atrial and ventricular systole.

ventricular diastole.

In the heart, an action potential originates in the




Purkinje fibers.


bundle branches.


atrioventricular bundle.


atrioventricular node.


sinoatrial node.

sinoatrial node.

Identify the correct sequence of an action potential traveling through the heart.




sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.




atrioventricular node, sinoatrial node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.




atrioventricular bundle, atrioventricular node, sinoatrial node, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.




Purkinje fibers, atrioventricular bundle, atrioventricular node, sinoatrial node, bundle branches.




atrioventricular node, sinoatrial bundle, atrioventricular node, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.

sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, bundle branches, Purkinje fibers.

Which of the following is true concerning the heart conduction system?




action potentials pass slowly through the atrioventricular node




action potentials pass slowly through the atrioventricular bundle




action potentials pass slowly through the Purkinje fibers




action potentials pass slowly through the ventricle wall




action potentials pass slowly through the bundle branches

action potentials pass slowly through the atrioventricular node

What is the correct sequence of events associated with the depolarization phase of cardiac muscle cells?




Voltage-gated Na+ channels open, voltage-gated K+ channels close, voltage-gated Ca+ channels begin to open




Voltage-gated Na+ channels open, voltage-gated K+ channels open, voltage-gated Ca+ channels begin to open




Voltage-gated Ca+ channels open, voltage-gated Na+ channels close, voltage-gated Ca+ channels begin to open




Voltage-gated Na+ channels open, voltage-gated Ca+ channels close, voltage-gated Ka+ channels begin to open

Voltage-gated Na+ channels open, voltage-gated K+ channels close, voltage-gated Ca+ channels begin to open

The refractory period




prevents tetanic contractions from occurring.




contributes to the rhythmicity of contractions.




ensures that muscle contraction and most of relaxation has been completed before another cycle begins.




both A and C are correct




A, B and C are all consequences of the refractory period.

A, B and C are all consequences of the refractory period.

The difference between the maximum and resting cardiac output is called




cardiac reserve.


preload.


stroke volume.


afterload.


contractility.

cardiac reserve.

Mean arterial pressure is

CO x PR

Cardiac output is

HR x SV

Peripheral Resistance

Total force against which the blood must be pumped

Heart Rate

Heart beat/Minute

Stroke Volume

EDV-ESV

As exercise progresses, muscular activity __________ venous return. This increases the _________ on the right ventricle.




decreases; preload


increases; afterload


increases; preload


decreases; afterload

increases; preload

When blood pressure increases




baroreceptors detect the change in the carotid arteries.




the cardioregulatory center decreases parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.




heart rate and stroke volume increase.




norepinephrine secretion increases.

baroreceptors detect the change in the carotid arteries.

Baroreceptors are located in the




aorta and subclavian arteries.




aorta and carotid arteries.




aorta and carotid veins.




aorta and subclavian veins.




aorta and common iliac arteries.

aorta and carotid arteries.

Action potentials are conducted from the baroreceptors to the brain via




the vagus nerve.




the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.




the vagus and phrenic nerves.




the phrenic and glossopharyngeal nerves.




the phrenic nerve.

the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.

The action potentials from the brain travel to the heart travel along




the vagus nerve.




the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.




the vagus and phrenic nerves.




the phrenic and glossopharyngeal nerves.




the phrenic nerve.

the vagus nerve.

When blood pH decreases




baroreceptors detect the change in the carotid arteries.




the cardioregulatory center decreases parasympathetic stimulation of the heart.




heart rate and stroke volume increase.




blood carbon dioxide levels have increased.

blood carbon dioxide levels have increased.

Decreased levels of extracellular potassium ions causes the resting membrane potential to become __________. As a consequence, it takes _____________ for the membrane to depolarize to threshold.




partially depolarized; less time




fully depolarized; less time




hyperpolarized; more time




hyperpolarized; less time




partially depolarized; more time

hyperpolarized; more time

Jim Beam, 52-year old man, is determined to mow his weedy lawn on a hot and humid day. He feels pain along his left arm. He stops inside to cool off, mentioning to his wife that he must have pulled a muscle, although he did not recall such an injury. His wife, a nurse, immediately takes him to a physician.




Why might she become so concerned over his complaint?




He may have suffered from a myocardial infarction.




He may have been experiencing ischemia.




He may have been experiencing referred pain.




Both A and C may have been correct.




A, B, and C may all have been correct.

A, B, and C may all have been correct.

The heart has been estimated to consume 20-30 times its own weight in ATP each day, and mitochondria comprise about 30% of the volume of a cardiomyocyte. In the normal adult heart, fatty acids supply about 60-80% of the organ’s energy needs, with most of the remainder being supplied by glucose. Mitochondrial fatty acid breakdown to yield ATP is called beta oxidation (Chapter 25). When oxygen supplies are limited, cardiomyocytes increase their use of glucose. Aerobic glucose metabolism consumes less oxygen than beta oxidation, and anaerobic glycolysis does not depend on oxygen.




Obstruction of the coronary arteries is therefore expected to




increase glucose consumption.




decrease glucose consumption.




increase fatty acid consumption.




increase protein consumption.

increase glucose consumption.

Unlike skeletal muscle cells, calcium enters the cytosol of both heart and smooth muscle cells from both the sarcoplasmic reticulum and extracellular fluid. Furthermore, pacemaker cells of the heart, notably those in the SA and AV nodes, differ from other cardiomyocytes in that they reach threshold by way of calcium channels instead of sodium channels. Considering what we know about calcium and heart cell function, calcium blockers such as nifedipine and verapamil can be expected to




increase heart rate




decrease heart rate




reduce contractile force




increase contractile force




decrease heart rate and reduce contractile force

decrease heart rate and reduce contractile force

On a hot, humid summer day, you are in a camp site when you notice a man nearby clutching his chest. He complains of pain in the chest and left arm. You are far away from the nearest hospital, and there is only a little clinic in a nearby town. An ancient, bearded physician makes a suspected diagnosis of _____and reaches into his medication cabinet and hands the man _______.




cyanosis, digitalis


cardiomyopathy, a calcium blocker


coronary heart disease, nitroglycerin


endocarditis, an antimicrobial drug

coronary heart disease, nitroglycerin

Why is it important to use an antibiotic other than ampicillin in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia?




Multiple Choice




Because antibiotics, such as ampicillin destroy the cell walls of cardiac muscle cells.




Because antibiotics, such as ampicillin cause the cells lining blood vessels to endocytose bacteria and deposit them in cardiac muscle tissue.




Because antibiotics, such as ampicillin are not effective in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.




Because antibiotics, such as ampicillin destroy the cell walls of bacteria which cause a toxin to be released that will destroy cardiac muscle cells.

Because antibiotics, such as ampicillin destroy the cell walls of bacteria which cause a toxin to be released that will destroy cardiac muscle cells.

All of the following are functions of the heart, except _____________________.




Multiple Choice




generating blood pressure




separating pulmonary and systemic circulations




moving blood in one direction




adjusting blood supply, depending on tissue needs




adjusting blood gas levels, depending on tissue needs

adjusting blood gas levels, depending on tissue needs

Size of the heart




The adult heart averages ___________ grams.




Multiple Choice




100-200


50-100


250-300


400-500

250-300

Heart location




A knowledge of heart location would NOT be important for which of the following?




Multiple Choice




Blood pressure readings


Stethoscope positioning


Electrocardiogram


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Blood pressure readings

The pericardium The inner lining of the pericardial cavity is the ____________ pericardium, whereas the outer part of the heart wall is called the epicardium or the _______________ pericardium.




Multiple Choice




fibrous; parietal


visceral; fibrous


parietal; visceral


visceral; parietal


fibrous; visceral

parietal; visceral

Adequate oxygen delivery to cardiac muscleWhat must occur during exercise to ensure adequate oxygen delivery to cardiac muscle?




Multiple Choice




There must be increased oxygen release to cardiac muscle




There must be decreased oxygen content to skeletal muscle




There must be a decreased heart rate




There must be increased coronary blood flow

There must be increased coronary blood flow

Characteristics of the SR




All of the following characteristics of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in cardiac muscle cells are true except ________________.




Multiple Choice




it is more irregular than that in skeletal muscle cells.




it is in close association wit the transverse tubules.




it is involved in the storage and release of calcium




it has enlarged terminal cisternae like skeletal muscle cells.

it has enlarged terminal cisternae like skeletal muscle cells.

Prolonged contraction phaseIdentify the structures that contribute to the slow onset of contraction and prolonged contraction phase in cardiac muscle tissue.




Multiple Choice




Desmosomes


Gap junctions


Intercalated discs


T-tubules


Terminal cisternae

T-tubules

Calcium-induced calcium release occurs when




Multiple Choice




calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum stimulates the movement of calcium into the cell through the plasma membrane.




calcium is released from both the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the cardiac muscle cell.




the efflux of calcium from the cell results in depolarization.




calcium entering through the plasma membrane stimulates release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

calcium entering through the plasma membrane stimulates release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

Ions responsible for depolarizationThe ion primarily responsible for depolarization in pacemaker cells is ______________, whereas the ion primarily responsible for this in other cardiac cells is _____________.




Multiple Choice




sodium; calcium


calcium; sodium


potassium; sodium


calcium; potassium


potassium; sodium

calcium; sodium

Where is blood moving during the period of ejection?




Multiple Choice




Ventricles to atria


Ventricles to great vessels


Atria to ventricles


Atria to great vessels


Great vessels to ventricles

Ventricles to great vessels

Under resting conditions, the normal stroke volume is approximately ___________.




Multiple Choice




55 mL


70 mL


110 mL


125 mL


180 mL

70 mL

All of the following cardiac measurements will increase during exercise except ____________________.




Multiple Choice




end-diastolic volume


end-systolic volume


stroke volume


cardiac output

end-systolic volume

Small changes in _____________ will have a large impact on the heart's pumping effectiveness, while large changes in ___________ do not impact the effectiveness much.




Multiple Choice




afterload; preload


preload; afterload


contractility; preload


afterload; contractility


contractility; afterload

preload; afterload

The peripheral chemoreceptors that respond to oxygen levels of the blood and regulate heart activity are located in _______________.




Multiple Choice




the left ventricle


the infundibulum of the hypothalamus


structures near the carotids and aortic arch


the medulla oblongata


the right ventricle

structures near the carotids and aortic arch

All of the following structural changes found in the heart occur with the normal aging process, except ___________________.




Multiple Choice




hypertrophy of the left ventricle


decreased elasticity of large vessels


decreased valve flexibility


increased elasticity of large vessels


atrophy of conduction cells

increased elasticity of large vessels

A patient has been diagnosed with mild heart disease. Tests show that some of the coronary arteries are partially occluded. Which of the following is the best course of action to treat the disease?




Multiple Choice



Angioplasty


Coronary bypass surgery


Electrocardiogram


Tissue plasminogen activation


Angiogram

Angioplasty

Diagnostic tests done on a patient show that many coronary arteries, including the left main coronary artery are severely narrowed. Which of the following is the best course of action to treat this patient?




Multiple Choice




Angiogram


Angioplasty


Coronary bypass surgery


Electrocardiogram


Urokinase injections

Angioplasty