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45 Cards in this Set

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pluralist democracy

idea that individuals can find their political strength only in numbers, by joining with other like-minded people to get the representation they want.

parties provide support for democratic government by...

1.linkage between voter and elected officials


2. linking all members in all branches and level of government


3. articulate opposition to the ideas and policies of those elected to serve in government

political parties

organizations that seek to promote their ideas and policies by gaining control of government through nomination and election of candidate for office

partisanship

taking of political sides

party organization

represent systems of central committees at the national, state, and local level.

electioneering

recruiting and nominating candidates, defying policies, and getting candidates elected

nominating convention

formal party gathering that is bound by a number of strict rules relating to the selection of voting participants (delegates) and the nomination of candidates

Party in government

all candidates for national, state, and local offices who are elected

governing

controlling government by organizing and providing leadership for the legislative and executive branches, enacting policy, agendas, mobilizing support for party policy, and building coalitions.

part-in-the-electorate

ordinary citizens who identify with or have some feelings of attachment to one of the political parties

party identification

determined by public opinion surveys


-voter affiliation with a political party


-parties use this as necessary base of support during elections.

party base

members of political party who consistently vote for that party's candidates


SIG: not sufficient to win a national election since neither party has a majority of the national voter

responsible party model

part government when four conditions are met, class choice of ideological, candidates pledge to implement ideas, party held accountable by voters, and party control over members



party machines

tightly organized party systems at the state, city, and county levels that kept control of voters by getting them jobs, helping them out financially for votes

party bosses

party leaders, usually in urban districts, who exercise tight control over electioneering and patronage


-they choose the party's candidates for the general election.


SIG: Americans are not really in favor of this connotation

patronage

system in which successful party candidates reward supports with jobs or favors

party primaries

nomination of party candidates by registered party members rather than party bosses


- party-in-the-electorate chose between competing party candidates for a party's nomination, and civil reform.

party eras

extended periods of relative political stability in which one party tends to control both the presidency and congress

realignment

substantial and long-term shift in party allegiance bu individuals and groups, usually resulting in a change in policy direction


SIG: coalitions of groups supporting the parties changes


example: south used to be democrats because they didn't want to support Lincoln's party but now they are mostly republican

Dealignment

trend among voters to identify themselves as independent rather than as a member of a major party.


-

party platform

list of policy positions a party endorses and pledges it elected officials to enact.


-campaign promise

party activists

people who are committed to the value and policies of the party an who devote their resources to the party's cause.


-lifeblood of the campaign


-tend to be more extreme



factions

citizen united by some interest or passion that might be opposed to the common good

interest groups

organization of individuals who share a common political goal and unite for the purpose of influencing public policy decision


SIG: meant to provide specialized information on specific policies

roles of interest groups

1. representation


2. participation


3. education


4. agenda building


5. provision of program alternatives


6. program monitoring

lobbying

activity of persuading policymakers to support an interest group's position


why do interest groups form?

problem that needs to be solved or a threat to their interests that needs to be addressed,


have resources (time, money, etc.)

free rider problem

difficulty groups face in recruiting when potential members can gain the benefits of the group's action whether they join or not


SIG: overcome this problem by providing selective incentives to actors



collective good

a good or service that cannot be denied to others.


examples: public safety, clean air, etc.


-it is difficult to persuade people to join groups because there is nothing for them to get also members will find it difficult to see that they are making a difference


SIG: anyone can benefit from it

selective incentives

benefits available to their members that are not available to the general population


SIG: one way to overcome free rider policy

material benefits

tangible rewards that members use


example: information, magazine

solidarity benefits

selective incentives related to the interaction and bonding among groups members



expressive benefits

rewards that come from doing something that you believe in strongly.

Types of interest groups

1. economic


2. equal opportunity


3. government: representing both foreign and domestic government



direct lobbying

interaction with actual decision makers within government institutions.



indirect lobbying

attempts to influence public opinion and mobilize interest groups member or the general public to contact their elected representatives on an issue

revolving door

tendency of public officials, journalist and lobbyists to move between public and private sector jobs


-SIG: sets dangerous precedent to have such a cozy relationship between lobbyist and public officials

political actions committees (PAC)

Fundraisers for interests groups



issue advocacy ads

encourages constitutes to support or oppose a certain policy or candidate without directly telling them how to vote.

social protest

public activities design to bring attention to political causes, usually generated by those without access to conventional means of expressing their views

grassroots lobbying

indirect lobbying efforts that spring from widespread public concern

astroturf lobbying

indirect lobbying efforts that manipulates or creates public sentiments being artificial grassroots

Loretta Lynch

attorney general


kennedy

supreme vote person

fractions

political parties


SIG: goes back to washington and maddison wariness of fractions


running into the issues of hyperpartisanship,


danger to American democracy