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50 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

A condition in which no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural conventions exist

Social Equality

A two-directional relationship, following a pattern in which an original statement/thesis is countered with an antithesis leading to a conclusion that unites the strengths of the original position and the counterargument


Example: The "master-slave" visual

-Codependent relationship

-The slave is dependent on the master because the master provides food, shelter, protection

-The master depends on the slave because the slave performs the basic duties of survival (preparing his food daily)

Example of


A society commerce (ie. modern capitalist society) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive

Bourgeois Society

Occurs when a group/person in a gate keeper position (ie. college admission office) in charge of hiring new workers, actively selects some applicants who haven't faced an even playing field, often due to racism/sexism in society

Affirmative Action

The notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to evade responsibility and hopes others will pull the extra weight

Free Rider Problem

The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure that falls between the "pure" classes

ie) managers-possess both the position of working class and capitalist class

Contradictory Class Location

A society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability and achievement


An individual's position in a stratified social order. Any measure that attempts to classify groups, individuals, families with indicators such as occupation, wealth, income, and education

Socioeconomic Status

Money received by a person for work, from transfers (gifts, inheritance, or government assistance) or from returns on investments


A family/individual's net worth (that is total assets minus total debts)


The rise in the trade of goods and services across national boundaries, as well as increased mobility of multinational businesses and migrant labor. The main reason for the rising income and wealth inequalities


The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society

Social Mobilty

Refers to the rise or fall of an individual/group from one social stratum to another

Vertical Social Mobility

A group/individual transitioning from one social status to another situated more/less on the same thing of the ladder

Horizontal Social Mobility

Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy, caused by changes in the distribution of jobs

Structural Mobility

Mobility in which, if we hold fixed changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade jobs not one-to-one but in a way that ultimately balances out

Exchange Mobility

Approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status including income and educational attainment and seeks to specify the attributes characteristics of people who end up in more desirable occupations

Status Attainment Model

A status which one enters; voluntary status

Achieved Status

A status into which one is born; involuntary status

Ascribed Status

The notion that a change in one factor results in a corresponding change in another


An economically based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility

Class System

A methodology by which two or more entities, which are similar in many dimensions but differ on one in question, are compared to learn about the dimension that differs between them

Comparative Research

The idea that conflict between competing interest is the basic, animating force of social change and society in general

Conflict Theory

A systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure of a communication, such as a written work, speech or film

Content Analysis

Simultaneous variation in two variables


The outcome that the researcher is trying to explain

Dependent Variable

The role of a member of a triad who intentionally drives a wedge between the other two actors in the group

Divide et impera

A concept conceived by W.E.B Du Bois to describe the two behavioral scripts, one for moving through the world and the other incorporating the external opinions of prejudiced onlookers, which are constantly maintained by African Americans

Double Consciousness

The view of social life as essentially a theatrical performance, in which we are all actors on metaphorical stages, with roles, scripts, costumes and sets

Dramaturgical Theory


A group of two


A measured factor that the researcher believes has a causal impact on the dependent variable

Independent Variable

Institutions and social dynamics that may seem race-neutral but actually disadvantage minority groups

Institutionalized Racism

A group characterized by the presence of a formal structure that mediates interaction and consequently, status differentiation

Large Group

One status within a set that stands out or overrides all others

Master Status

The process by which problems or issues not traditionally seen as medical come to be framed such as


The process of assigning a precise method for measuring a term being examined for use in a particular study


Any social network that is defined by a common purpose and has a boundary between its membership and the rest of the social world


Someone/something outside of oneself


Another term for the stigmatized or less powerful group, the minority


A qualitative research method that seeks to uncover the meanings people give their social actions by observing their behavior in practice

Participant Observation

An entire group of individual persons, objects, or items from which samples may be drawn


Social groups, such as family or friends composed of enduring, intimate face-to-face relationships that strongly influence the attitudes and ideals of those involved

Primary groups

The working class


Methods that attempt to collect information about the social world that cannot be readily converted to numeric form

Qualitative Methods

Methods that seek to obtain information about the social world that is already in or can be converted to numeric form

Quantitative Methods

A group that helps us understand or make sense of our position in society relative to other groups

Reference Groups

Analyzing and critically considering our own role in, and effect on, our research


The likelihood of obtaining consistent results using the same measure


A situation in which the researcher believes that A results in a change in B, but B in fact, is causing A

Reverse Causality