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34 Cards in this Set

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An organized set of memories, thoughts, or strategies used to understand the environment and react, can be mental, problem solving, and physical (largely for infants)


Combining simple schemes into more complex ones


Tendency to adjust our schemes to environmental demands, new experiences


Type of adaptation in which existing schemes are used to understand new info, stimulus, or experience

Ex: 4 legs,moves around, tail = must be a dog!


Type of adaptation in which schemes are adjusted or created to understand new info, stimulus, or experience.

- Takes cues from environment and recognize existing scheme does not fit new info


Last from birth to 2 years, period of most dramatic achievement, purely reflexive behavior, beginnings of goal directed behavior and symbolic thought, building blocks for language acquisition and problem solving

Sensorimotor Period

0 to 1 month, grasping and sucking, allows infants to provide stimulation, "exercising"

Sensorimotor Substage: Reflex activity

1 to 4 months, repetitive behaviors that center on the child's own body, repeat actions that are pleasant/pleasurable, often start out as "accidents"

Sensorimotor Substage: Primary Circular Reactions

4 to 8 months, repetitive behaviors focused on other objects, infants are able to combine multiple simple schemes into more complex schemes, no intentionality

Sensorimotor Substage: Secondary Circular Reactions

8 to 12 months, intentionality, infant combines multiple complex schemes to achieve goals.

Sensorimotor Substage: Coordination of Secondary Schemes

Infant plans goal directed behavior


12 to 28 months, experimentation that leads to knowledge about objects, trial and error approach, curiosity + intentionality

Sensorimotor Substage: Tertiary Circular Reactions

18 to 24 months, beginnings of symbolic thought (mental representation), drawing, fantasy or pretend play, deferred imitation, facilitates problem solving

Sensorimotor Substage: Internalization of Schemes

People and objects exist independently of our own interactions with them, knowing that an object or person exists even though we cannot see, hear, or touch it

Object Permanence

2 to 7 years, child develops symbolic function (ability to use symbols to represent objects or events), no "operations" yet, no ability to perform actions mentally only physically

Preoperational period

2 to 4 years, animistic thinking, egocentrism

Preoperational substage: Symbolic Function

believing nonliving things have living abilities

Animistic thinking

Inability to take any person's perspective over your own, cannot think outside your own terms


4 to 7 years, children get correct answer but cannot explain why , kids do not have perspective on their thinking, centration

Preoperational substage: Intuitive Stage

Ignoring important parts of a problem and focus on one central part that may be misleading, leads to bad problem solving


7 to 11 years, logical reasoning about specific, concrete objects or events, can perform mental operations, reversibility, conservation, decrease in centration and egocentrism

Concrete Operational stage

Mental operation that allows for big changes in reasoning. Ability to mentally undo an action, think back to what something looked like before it was transformed.


Ability of understanding that changing an objects appearance does not change it's basic properties


11 to adolescence, development of abstract thoughts, idealistic thinking, greater flexibility in thinking and problem solving, mental hypothesis testing (test hypotheses mentally before acting them out physically)

Formal Operational stage

The belief that you are always being watched or judged

Adolescent egocentrism: Imaginary audience

Stories we tell ourselves about our own uniqueness

Adolescent egocentrism: Personal fable

Not Piaget's stage, created by researchers, young adults, thinking that is relativistic and context driven, search for truth is an ongoing process, emotions affect thinking

Fifth Stage- Postformal Development

Inborn features such as attention , memory , and perceptual abilities

Vygotsky: Elementary mental functions

Voluntary attention, logical and abstract thinking

Vygotsky: Higher mental functions

What tasks a person can do with help but could not do alone

Zone of Proximal Development

Vygotsky believed...

Child's interaction with society and culture causes transition and development, cannot learn about cognition or development through assessment

Determining the zone of proximal development, parent or teacher adjusts level of assistance to meet the development level of the child, parent or teacher reduces the amount of help over time and the child can eventually learn independently, supportive social interaction


Self directed dialogue the child uses to direct problem solving, internalized thoughts at age 7 or 8, aids in problem solving, regulates strategy use, younger children say this dialogue aloud

Private speech (egocentric speech)

Piaget believed...

Children are active participants in their own development, constantly adapting to meet the demands of the environment