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105 Cards in this Set

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Any relatively permanent change in behaviour resulting from experience
An enduring change in behaviour that results from experience
This American psychologist founded the school of thought called BEHAVIOURISM
John B. Watson
He beleived that OVERT behaviour was the only valid indicator of psychological activity
John B. Watson
He beleived that although thoughts and beleifs existed, they could bot be studied using the scientific method
John B. Watson
He beleive that the environment and its associated effects on organism could be studied and are the sole determinants of learning
John B. Watson
This school of thought is based on the belief that animals and humans are born with the potential to learn anything
His idea of the tabula rasa or blank slate states that we are born knowing nothing and that all knowledge is acquired through sensory experience
John Locke
He was a Russian physiologist who won the Nobel prize for his work on the digestive system
Ivan Pavlov
He believed that behavioural responses are conditioned
Ivan Pavlov
This is the automatic and unlearned response that occurs when the stimulus of food is presented to hungry animals
Salivary Reflex
Based on on his study of the salivary reflex and dogs, Pavlov developed this theory
Classical Conditioning
Name that Theory: This is a type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimuli that already produces that response
Classical Conditioning
A neutral stimulus that is unrelated to the salivary reflex (i.e., ringing bell) is presented together with a stimulus that reliably produces the reflex (i.e., food)
The pairing of bell and Food is repeated a number of times
Conditioning Trial
The bell sound is presented alone and the salivary reflex is measured
Critical Trials
Under these conditions, the sound of the bell on its own produced salivation
Pairing, Conditioning Trial and Critical Trial
The basic mechanisms responsible for learning are?
Unconditional Response, Unconditional Stimulus, Conditioned Stimulus and Conditioned Response
This is a response that does not require any learning
Unconditional Response
This response is an unlearned, automatic behaviour
Unconditional Response
A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex without any prior learning
Unconditioned Stimulus
A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place
Conditioned Stimulus
A response that has been learned or the response
Conditioned response
The response to the conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
Sort for before conditioning: NS, US, UR, CS, CR
US -> UR
Sort for conditioning: NS, US, UR, CS, CR
NS -> US
Sort for after conditioning: NS, US, UR, CS, CR
CS -> CR
What are the basic principles of Classical Conditioning?
Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination
What are the basic principles of Classical Conditioning?
Acquisition, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination
The initial learning of a behaviour is based on the gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli
Critical elements in the acquisition of a learned association is that the stimuli occur together, this is referred to as:
Research has shown that the strongest conditioning occurs when:
There is a very brief delay between the CS and the US
This is suggestive of a process in which the conditioned response is WEAKENED when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus
This is a process in which a previously extinguished response reemerged following presentation of the conditioned stimulus
Spontaneous Recovery
How many pairing does it take before the CS and the US will reestablish the CR?
Even a single pairing will reestablish the CR
Occurs when stimuli that are similiar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response
Stimulus Generalization
A learned tendency to differentiate between two similiar stimuli if one is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus and the other is not
Stimulus Discrimination
The process by which organisms learn to respond to certain stimuli but not to others
Stimulus Discrimination
Are acquired fears that are out of proportion to the real threat of an object
According to the Classical Conditioning Theory, this develops through generalization of a fear experience such as when a person who is stung by a bee develops a fear of all flying insects
Pavlov referred to learned phobias as:
Conditioned Emotional Responses
This technique exposes people to small doses of the feared stimulus while having them engage in a pleasurable task to help them overcome their fears
Who developed a formal treatment based on counterconditioning called Systematic Desensitization
Joseph Wolpe
While applying this technique, Clients are taught how to relax their muscles, and when they are able to od so, they are asked to imagine the feared object or situaiton while continuing to use relaxation exercises - eventually the person is exposed to the feared stimulus while relaxing
Systematic Desensitization
Behavioursm, led by Watson, focused on observable aspects of:
Pavlov developed the classical-conditioning theory to account the what between NS and reflexive behaviours
Learned Association
Conditioning occurs when the CS becomes what with the US
What is another term for Operant Conditioning?
Instrumental Conditioning
Name that Theory: Our behaviours often represent a means to and end such as we buy food to eat, we study to get good grades, and we work to receive money
Operant Conditioning
Name that theory: We learn to behave in certain ways in order to be rewarded
Operant Conditioning
Name that theory: We avoid behaving in certain ways in order not to be punished
Operant Conditioning
Who is the psychologist most closely associated with Operant Conditioning
B.F Skinner
He selected the term OPERANT to express the idea that animals OPERATE on the environment to produce an effect
B.F. Skinner
Name that Theory: The learning process in which the consequence of an action determines the likelihood that it will be performed in the future
Operant Conditioning
Organisms learn to repeat behaviours that yield positive outcomes or permit them to avoid or escape negative outcomes
Operant Conditioning
The study of operant conditioning began in whose based?
William James
As a young graduate student working with James, this person had been influed by Darwin and was studying whether nonhuman animals showed signs of intelligence
Edward Thorndike
Name that Theory: Learning depends upon the consequences of the animal's behaviour
Thorndike's Law of Effect
This person coined the term REINFORCER
B.F. Skinner
This is a stimulus that occurs following a response that increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
This person believed that behaviour occurs because it has been reinfornced
B.F. Skinner
This is s simple devise for assessing operant conditioning
The Skinner Box
These events strengthen behaviours
These events suppress behaviours
The four types of consequences according to Operant Conditioning are:
Positive Reinforcers, Negative Reinforcers, Positive Punishment and Negative Punishment
The goal of this is to increase the probability that a particular response will occur again
This type of reinforcer increases in the probability of a behaviour being repeated following the administration of a reward or pleasurable stimulus
Positive Reinforcer
This type if reinforcer is a desired consequence that strengthens the response they follow
Positive Reinforcer
Two types of Positive Reinforcers are:
Primary Reinforcers and Secondary/Conditioned Reinforcers
This type of positive reinforcer is related to biological needs, whcih include food when we are hungry, water when we are thirsty, and sexual pleasure
Primary Reinforcers
Two key notions of primary reinforcers are:
Necessary for survival and satisfy biological needs.
These reinforcers do not directly satisfy biological needs, which include money, prizes, status and grades
Secondary/Conditiond Reinforcers
These reinforcers become established through classic conditioning
Secondary Reinforcers
This increases behaviour though the removal of an aversive stimulus
Negative Reinforcement
With this type of reinforcement, there is an increase in the probability of a behaviour being repeated through the removal of an aversive stimulus, which strengthens behavioural responses to avoid such stimuli
Negative Reinforcement
You use an umbrella to avoid getting soaked by the rain is an example of?
Negative Reinforcement
You take an aspirin to escape the undesirable pain is an example of?
Negative Reinforcement
You are given praise or money for working hard is an example of?
Positive Reinforcement
Name that Theory: The value of a specific reinforcer could be determined by the amount of time an organism engages in that behaviour when free to choose anything
Integrative Theory of Reinforcement
Who developed the Integrative Theory of Reinforcement?
David Premack
Name that Theory: A more valued activity can be used to reinforce the performance of a less valued activity.
Premack's Principle
"Eat your spinach and then you will get dessert" is an example of:
Premack's Principle
"Finish your homework and you can go out" is an example of:
Premack's Principle
This term suggests the application or removal of a stimulus so as to decrease the strength of a behaviour
Giving a rat an electric shockl for pressing a lever is an example of:
This is the process by which the consequence of an action reduce the likelihood that the action will be repeated
This decreases the probability of a behaviour recurring by administering an averse stimulus
Positive Punishment
Whe an organism learns not to behave in a certain way because a punisher will follow, this is called
Positive Punishment
A teacher assigns a student 20 math problems as homework following a disruptive outburst in the classroom, this is an example of:
Positive Punishment
You are driving fast to get to class and you get pulled over by a police officer and you get a speeding ticket, this is an example of:
Positive Punishment
This decreases the probability of behaviour by removing a pleasurable stimulus, thus the tendency to behave in certain ways
Negative Punishment
That which occcurs when removing a stimulus that decreases the probability of a behaviour recurring
Negative Punishment
You lose your drivers license for reckless driving is an example of:
Negative Punishment
For punishment to be effective, when should it be applied so that the relationship between the unwanted behaviour and punishement are clear
This involves reinforcing behaviours that are increasingly similiar to the desired behaviours
It is a technique in which closer and closer approximations of desired behaviours are required for the delivery of positive reinforcement
This is a procedure that establishes a sequence of responses, which lead to a reward following the final response in the sequence
This is a type of learning in which the desired behaviour is reinforced each time it occurs
Continuous Reinforcement
This type of learning in which behaviour is reinforced intermittently
Partial Reinforcement
This type of reinforcement is based on the number of times the bahaviour occurs ie every third or tenth occurance
Ration Schedule
Reinforcement is based on a specific unit of time ie once every minute or hour
Interval Schedule
This type of reinforcment leads to greater responding than interval reinforcement
Ratio reinforcement
The reinforcer is constantly given following a specific number of occurances or after a specific amount of time
Fixed Schedule
The reinforcer is applied at different rates or at different times
Variable Schedule
Continuous reinforcement is highly effective for acquiring a behaviour, but if the reinforcement is stopped, the behaviour extinguishes quickly, this is called:
Partial-Reinforcement Effect