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61 Cards in this Set

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Definitions:



1. PaO2


2. PaCO2


3. SpO2


4. ETCO2

1. Partial Pressure of oxygen in blood


2. Partial Pressure of CO2 in blood


3. Oxygen saturation


4. end tidal CO2

Cellular health throughout the body depends on normal ______________ of ______________ to organs.

perfusion



blood

_______________ blood is comprised primarily of O2 bound to hgb.

Arterial blood

Hgb - bound O2 depends on the _________________ of hgb as well as the ________________ of hgb with __________.

concentration



saturation



Oxygen

PaO2 depends on 3 things:



1. the amount of O2 in the ___________ air.


2. ability of animal to .........


3. absorption of O2 from ____________ into _______.

1. inspired



2. ...move air in and out of pulmonary tree (ventilation.)



3. pulmonary tree / blood

Removal of CO2 from body depends on _________________.

Ventilation

Respiratory acidosis:



1. aka



2. what happens to CO2 in body?

1. hypoventilation



2. accumulates / increases in body

Respiratory alkalosis:



1. aka



2. what happens to CO2 in body?

1. hyperventilation



2. decreases / excessive loss of CO2

What monitor reading / measurement can tell you if patient is experiencing respiratory acidosis or alkalosis?

ETCO2 (end tidal CO2)

What does an arterial blood gas analysis test measure?

absolute concentration of oxygen

Where do you perform an arterial stick for a cat? For a dog?

cat - femoral



dog - dorsal/pedal

What is the most common blood gas parameter measured for respiratory function?

PaO2

What is normal PaO2 in a patient breathing room air (21% O2)

100mmHg

Ventilation is assessed by measuring ___________.

PCO2

HYPOventilation =



increased ________


decreased __________



>________mmHg requires TX


>________mmHg is life threatening

increased PaCO2


decreased PaO2



>50mmHg requires TX


>70mmHg = life threatening

PulseOx - what is normal? (good)

98%

Advantages of the pulse ox:

  • inexpensive
  • continuous info about pulse rate & hgb sat.
  • useful for patents at risk of hypoxia

Disadvantages of the pulse ox:

  • affected by motion
  • affected by pigment of skin
  • cannot distinguish between normal and abnormal hgb
  • provides little info on gas exchange

Where to place pulse ox?



(6 possible places)

1. tongue


2. pinna


3. interdigital web


4. prepuce


5. inguinal fold


6. shaved skin over lip

Capnograph provides information about the amount of ________ exhaled and inhaled.



This allows evaluation of _____________ _______________.

CO2



respiratory depression

ETCO2 = amount of CO2 at the ____________ of exhalation.

END

Capnograph can provide what information?



(list 4 things)

1. confirmation of ET tube placement


2. measure of ventilation


3. measure of cardiac output


4. measure of cellular metabolism

Delivery of CO2 to lungs requires _________ ___________.

blood flow

*** One of the earliest and most sensitive signs of cardiovascular collapse or cardiac arrest is: ________________________________.

an abrupt decrease in end tidal CO2

an abrupt decrease in CTCO2 means there is no _____________.

perfusion

ETCO2 reflects _____________

PaCO2

Advantages of the capnograph: (3)

1. continuous


2. non-invasive


3. BEST WAY TO DETERMINE EFFICIENT VENILATION

Disadvantages of the capnograph (2)

1. dead space w/insertion of sampling connector



2. INCREASED POTENTIAL FOR LEAKS IN THE BREATHING SYSTEM

Blood pressure is important for __________ _______________.

tissue perfusion

________________________ increases vascular resistance and BP, decreased perfusion

vasoconstriction

TRUE or FALSE:



Low BP manes inadequate perfusion

FALSE - not always

Lis 6 instances where we monitor a patient's blood pressure?:

1. during any anesthetic procedure



2. during induction / recovery



3. any ER / critical care situation



4. CPR



5. routine monitoring / checks



6. when underlying disease may lead to secondary BP abnormalities (ex. renal disease, heart disease, hyperthyroidism)

SBP =



dbp

Systolic blood pressure



Diastolic blood pressure

Systolic blood pressure corresponds to _____________ _______________. (systole)

ventricular ejection (contraction)

Diastolic BP corresponds to ______________ ___________________ (diastole)

ventricular relaxation

Normal SBP for:



dogs =



cats =

Normal SBP for:



dogs = 110-170mmHg



cats = 120-170mmHg

Normal dbp for:



dogs =



cats =

Normal dbp for:



dogs = 55 - 110mmHg



cats = 70 - 110mmHg

MAP = __________ ____________ _____________

mean arterial pressure

_______mmHg = hypotension

60mmHg

Factors Affecting BP: (3)

1. Blood volume



2. Cardiac output



3. Vascular resistance

Blood volume refers to the amount of blood in the _______________ _______________.

vascular space

Cardiac output:



_____________ ___________ is the number of timers per minute the heart contracts or beats

Heart rate

Vascular resistance: what is it (2 options), and what can affect it?

vasodilation or vasoconstriction



medications

Indirect Method of monitoring BP:

Doppler ultrasound

Doppler ultrasound only measures this type of BP:

systole

What is extremely important with regard to performing a Doppler ultrasound BP?

cuff size

Common sites to place BP cuff (3)

metacarpus



metatarsus



tail

If performing routine BP checks on an animal, what special consideration do you need to keep in mind?

put cuff in same place / position every time

Oscillometric method of measuring BP measures what type of BP?

MAP

Oscillometric BP test is usually in association with what two other measurements / pieces of equipment?

ECG, pulse ox

What is the advantage of the oscillometric BP test over the Doppler?

it measures the MAP (Doppler only measures systolic)

If both the femoral AND the dorsal pedal pulse can be palpated on the SAME LEG, the systolic pressure is at least _________mmHg

80mmHG

If femoral pulse is palpable but metatarsal pulse is absent, BP is probably between ______ to _______mmHg.

60 - 80 mmHg

If femoral pulse is weak or absent, BP is likely below ____________mmHg

60 mmHg (critically low)

Arterial blood pressure measures ______ __________

gas exchange

Never do an arterial blood pressure / arterial catheter on a patient with _______________ _____________.

bleeding disorder

Most common site for an arterial blood pressure test on a DOG is the _________________ artery.

dorsal pedal

For an arterial catheter, choose a needle one size __________ than you would for use on a peripheral vein.

smaller

Arterial catheters should not be left in more than ________________________ due to high incidence of ____________ ___________.

a few hours



arterial spasm

Concern with arterial blood tests / cath placement:

if patient connections are not secured, large volumes of blood can be lost in a short period of time.

TRUE or FALSE:



Medications and fluids can be given via an arterial catheter.

FALSE