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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is absorption?
rate at which drug leaves
site of aministration
What is an adverse
severe response to medication

(client becomes comotose
when drug is ingested)
What is anaphylactic
Reactions by sudden
constriction of bronchiolar
muscles, edema of pharynx &
larynx, & severe wheezing
& shortness of breath
What is biotransformation?
change occurs under
influence of enzymes that
detoxify, degrade, remove
biologically active chemicals
What is buccal?
pertaining to inside
of cheek or gum next to cheek
What is concentrate
or concentration?
substance, liquid that has
been strengthened / reduced
in volume thru evaporation
or other means
What is idiosyncratic
individual sensitiveness to
drug effects: caused by
inherited or other bodily
constitution factors
What is infusion?
introduction to substance:
fluid, drug, electrolyte,
nutrient directly into vein
by means of gravity flow
What is inhalation?
to breathe in / draw in breath
What is injection?
act of forcing liquid into
body by needle or syringe
What is instillation?
procedure fluid slowly
introduced into cavity
or passage of body (rectum)
allowed to remain for
specific length of time
being withrdrawn or drained
What is intrarticular?
within a joint
What is introcardiac?
within the myocardium
What is intramuscular
tissue within interior of
What is intraocular?
eye medication delivery
involving inserting meds
What is intravenous (IV)?
pertaining to inside of vein
What is irrigation?
process of washing out body
cavity or wounded area with
stream of fluid
What is medication allergy?
severe or mild reaction
to medications
What is metered-dose
inhaler (MDI)?
inhabler designed to produce
local effects
What is a narcotic?
drug substance either from
opium or produced
synthetically that alters
perception of pain
What is opthalmic?
meds for eye conditions

What is parenteal
injecting meds into
body tissues
Medication Dose Response

What is peak concentration?
highest serum concentration
Medication Dose Response

What is serum half-life?
time for serum medication
concentration to be halved
What is subcutaneous
injection into tissues
just below dermis of skin
What is sublingual?
route of meds administered
meds placed underneath
clients tongue
What are synergistic effect?
occurs when combined effect
of 2 meds is greater than
effect of meds given
What are therapeuatic
desired benefits of meds
treatment or procedure
What are toxic effects?
results from an excess amount
of meds in clients blood
impaired excretion
idosyncratic reaction to
medication itself
What is medication
study of how drugs enter body
reach their site of action
metobized & exited from body
What is polypharmacy?
use of different drugs
by pt. who may have one
or several health problems
What is a solution?
mixture 1 or more
substances dissolved in
another substance

(liquid, gas, solid)
What is Nurse Practice Acts?
statues enacted by legislature
of any state that delineate
legal scope of practice of
nursing within geographical
boundaries of jurisdiction
What is distribution?
drug is transported where
its needed in body
What is metabolism?

drug is broken down
What is excretion?
leftover drug is excreted
What is bioavailability?
amount of drug available for
therapeutic effect
decreases after passage
through liver
What is bioequivalent?
2 meds have same bioavailability
or med has same bioavailability
by different routes
What are teratogenic effect?
causes development of
abnormal structures in
an embryo
(check pregnancy category)
What are mutagenic effects?
drug causes genetic mutations
(changes DNA or chromosomes)
What are carcinogenic effects?
drug may cause cancer
What are antagonistic
second drug diminishes or
cancels effect of 1st drug
What is incompatibility?
2 drugs can not be given
together or adverse effect
may occur
(see drug guide)
Pharmacotherapeutics Monitoring

What is therapeutic index?
ratio between a drug's
therapeutic benefits & its
toxic effects
drugs are good unless too much
Pharmacotherapeutics Monitoring

What is tolerance?
decreasing response to
repetitive drug dose
requires dose to achieve
therapeutic effect
Pharmacotherapeutics Monitoring

What is intolerance?
inability to absorb or
metabolize a drug
What are warnings &
list of conditions or types
of clients that need close
observation while on specific

persons w/ liver impairment
What are interactions?
list of other drugs or foods
that may alter effect of drug

delayed absorption of
tetracycline if given with
What are contraindications?
conditions for which a drug
should not be given

elderly person w/ kidney would
not be able to take penicilin
What are cumulative effects?
occurs when drug is metabilized
or excreted more slowly than
the rate at which is being
What is dependence?
physiological or physchological
need for a drug
Medication Dose Response

What is trough?
minimum blood serum
concentration before next
scheduled dose
Medication Dose Response

What is duration?
time medication concentration
is sufficient to produce a
therapeutic response
Medication Dose Response

What is plateau or
steady state?
blood serum concentration is
reached & maintained after
repeated fixed doses
Medication Dose Response

what is onset?
time it takes for medication
to produce a response
Ch. 35
Medication Administration
p. 686
terms / definitions
What is pharmacokinetics?
Drug movement

study of what body does to
the drug
What are the 3
drug classifications?
Drugs in Pharmacological
classification are?
drugs grouped by physiological
activity & mechanisms
of action

beta blockers
calcium channel blockers
ACE inhibitors
Drugs in Therapeutic
classification are?
drugs grouped by similar
therapeutic indications

Drugs in chemical
classification are?
drugs grouped by chemical
structure, regardless of
differences in pharmacological
What factors influence
route of administration
ability to dissolve
blood flow to site of administration
body surface area
lipid solubility of meds.
presence of food or other drugs
Name some routes of
nasal, lungs, vaginal, rectal
What is the first pass
drug passes thru portal
circulation before going
into bloodstream
Name some parenteral
IV intravenous
IM intramuscular
ID intradermal
Sub Q subcutaneous
Topical routes are?
transdermal patches
ears, eyes
body cavity
vaginal, rectal
Oral routes are?
Describe distribution process?
after absorption, distribution
occurs in tissues, organs
& speficic sites of action
Distribution depends on what?
physical & chemical properties
of medication & physiology

circulation, membrane permeability
protein binding
Desribe Metabolism?
enzymes detoxify degrade
& remove active chemicals
Where does biotransformation
in liver
If liver function is
impaired how is metabolism
liver oxidices & transforms
many toxic substances
liver degrades harmful
chemicals before distribution
Medications are
excreted through?
exocrine glands
What is pharmocodynamics?
Drug Action

what drug does to body
What are the 3 checks?
check MAR against doctor order
check meds against MAR while preparing
check meds against MAR in client room
What do you need to do
before administrating drugs?
do 3 checks
check 2 forms of ID
check 6 rights
What is nurses role in meds?
understand action, dose
potential side effects
comprehend & apply knowledge
monitor pt. for therapeutic
or toxic effects
Describe preparing
medication process?
research medications
wash hands
prepare meds 1 pt at time
put packaged med into med cup
put meds that require assess
into different cup
Nursing responsibilities
when preparing meds are?
administer ONLY what you prepare
be familiar w/ medications
document AFTER you give meds
evaluate client
use aseptic technique
NO medications at bedside
Preparing medications in prep room?
wash hands & apply gloves
shake or mix liquids into solution
med cup on counter at eye level
wipe lip of bottle after pour
volume <15 ml use syringe
If patient has trouble
swallowing drugs?
crush pill with & mix w/
small amount soft food

not all meds can be crushed
What drugs does nurse give first to pts?
tablets / capsules

slower absorption
What drugs does nurse give last to pts?
sublingual because they
absorp faster than oral meds
What do nurses do if
suspect patient has
difficult swallowing drugs?
check the cough & gas
reflex FIRST
What are side effects?
predictable often
unavoidable secondary
What are toxic effects?
medication accumulates
in blood stream

too much meds