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64 Cards in this Set

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Study of nutrients and how the body utilizes the nutrients in food


Components in plant food that help protect against disease.


Substance needed for growth, maintenance, and repair of body.

Essential nutrients

Those the body need since they can't make them in sufficient amounts


Energy from carbohydrates, fat, & protien


Vitamins and minerals regulating body process.

Recommended dietary allowance (RDA)

Set of standards for intake of specific nutrients to meet the needs of healthy americans.

Dietary reference intakes (DRI)

List recommended dietary allowance, adequate intake, & estimate average requirement.

Adequate intake (AI)

Nutrient intake assumed to be adequate

Tolerable upper intake level (UL)

Highest level of nutrient intake that won't pose a threat to health of individual.

Estimated average requirement (EAR)

Daily nutrient intake value estimated to meet requirements of half the people in a life stage or gender group.

Estimated energy requirement (EER)

Average daily nutrient required to keep an individual energy balanced.

Nutrient dense foods

Food that provides substantial amounts of vitamins and minerals with few calories.

Kilocalorie (kcal)

Unit of measurement that specifies the heat energy in a particular amount of food.

1g carbs or 1g protein yields 4 kcal

1g fat yields 9 kcal, alcohol 7 kcal

Resting energy expenditure (REE)

Enery required to maintain body processes.


Biological catalysts made of protein.


Made of carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen. Major function is providing energy. Simplest carb is glucose. Another function is to spare protien.

Carbs (end products)

Glucose, fructose, and galactose. Liver convert it into immediate energy or stores in liver or muscle as glycogen.

Simple carbs

Either monosaccharides or disaccharides.

Mono- glucose, fructose, galactic

Disa- sucrose, lactose, maltose.

Hyper/ hypoglycemia

Abnormally high or low blood sugar. Refers To Blood levels of glucose.

Fructose & galactose

F- aka fruit sugar, found in honey, fruits, and saps.

G- not usually found in nature, few sources exist.

Sucrose, lactose, maltose

S- aka table sugar, composed of fructose & glucose.

L- sugar found in milk. Formed only in mammary glands.

M- not found in food,produced as an intermediate in starch digestion.


Complex carbohydrates, made of Long chains of many sugars molecules in a way that doesn't taste sweet. Starch, dextrin, glycogen, fiber.

Starch, dextrin, fructan, glycogen, dietary fiber

S- carbs stored in plants, found in grains, roots, bulbs, legumes, seeds.

D - formed immediately in starch digestion by action of enzymes or heat.

F- natural carbs, found in onions, bananas, wheat, garlic (whole foods). Ensures a clients increase in calorie intake.

G- not a significant for of carbs, but it's the storage form of carbs.

D- aka roughage, portion of plants resistant to digestion by human enzymes.

Fats (lipids)

Give flavor and texture to food. Is concentrated energy source, major source of energy. Supplies 40% of body energy. Also cushions organs, and protects then from injury.

Visible / invisible fat

V- fat that's easy identified in foods that appear fatty.

I- fat hidden in foods that don't appear fatty.

Fatty acids

Either saturated (no double bonds) or unsaturated (one or more double bonds) based on number of bonds.

Unsaturated- 2 types, mono/polyunsaturated.


Fats that have fewer essential fatty acids.


Member of sterols, found in animal tissue, it's needed to produce hormones, vitamin D, and bile acid.

HDL /LDL cholesterol

H-good cholesterol, lowers serum cholesterol levels and risk of heart disease.

L- bad cholesterol, implicated in development of atherosclerosis and coranary artery disease.


Foundation of every cell, only nutrient that builds and repair tissue. Made of amino acids. Maintain body's fluid balance. Acid base balance.

Complete/ incomplete protiens

Provide all essential amino acids in suffecient amounts and portions, for growth and maintenance.


Makes up 60% of adult body wieght. 80% infant. Adult loses 2.5 quarts a day by perspiring. One of the body major components. Is a solvent, and necessary for temp regulation.


Vital for building bones & teeth. Help Maintain muscle tone, maintain acid base balance.

Electrolytes, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus

E- consist of minerals in form of salt, acids, base.

S- major ion in extracellular fluid.

P- major ion in intracellular fluid.

C- needed for production of HCL in stomach.

M- bone formation and maintaining homeostasis.

C- mainly in bone, helps blood clots, regulates muscle activity.

P- in every cell, 80% in teeth and bones. Helps cell us carbs, protien, fats.

Trace minerals

Present in body in small amounts.

Iron- help rbc carry oxygen.

Iodine- needed to make thyroxine (hormone) that is essential for normal thyroid function,



Consist of C,O,H, & N. Essential for healthy diet.

Fat soluble vitamins

A,D,E,K. Stored in liver.

A- retinol, group of su substances that promote growth, normal vision, support membrane.

D- calciferol, group of sterols, regulates body use of calcium & phosphorus.

E- alpha-tocopherol necessary component for reproduction in animals.

K- needed for formation of prothrombin, and blood clotting.

Water soluble vitamins

Include vitamin C & B. Considered nontoxic, develop deficiency faster than fat soluble due to not being stored, and are excreted rapidly.


Nondigestible food Ingridients that selectively feed probiotic bacteria.


Healthy live bacteria. Pre & pro work together to maintain healthy digestive system & boost immune functions

Nutrient density

Foods that provide a significant amount of key nutrients per volume consumed.

Nutritional problems (CCSD)

In America it's not a deficiency but overconsumption. Leading cause of death are

Coranary artery disease

Certain cancers

(Stroke) Cerebral vascular accident



Extreme malnutrition and emaciation in young children as result of inadequate calories & protien.


Severe malnutrition, found in children, caused by protien deficiency.

Pregnancy nutrition

In 2 or 3 trimister, only needs to add 300 kcal a day for a total of 2000 or 2500 for fetus to survive.


Never forced them to eat, they eat enough by themselves


Snacking is 30% of their intake per day.

Vitamin A

Retinol, promotes growth, sustain normal vision, supports normal reproduction, and maintains healthy skin.

Found in animal sources, liver, butter, eggs yolk, fortified milk.

Vitamin D

Calciferol, group of sterols needed to regulating body use of calcium & phosphorus. Deficiency cause children bones not to harden.

Vitamin E

Reproductive vitamin. Needed to reproduction in animals. Deficiency is rare. Found in plant food vegetables oils, wheat germ, nut, green leafy.

Vitamin K

Menadione, essential in formation of prothrombin and clotting. Sources are liver eggs yolk, cauliflower, cabbages, spinach, green leafy vegetables. Hemorrhage may happen due to deficiency.

Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid, aid in formation of collagen. Essential to wound healing. Deficiency cause scurvy, irritability, lower resistance to disease.

In citrus, red/green peppers, brocolli, cauliflower, cantaloupe, kiwi fruit, mustard greens.

Thiamine B1

Promotes general body efficiency. Essential for metabolism of carbs, amino acids. Deficiency causes poor appetite, fatigue, nausea, vomiting.

Causes beriberi.

Source, pork, whole grain, cereal, legumes, organ meat.


Disease of nervous system that leads to paralysis and death from heart failure.

Riboflavin (B2)

Functions as component of 2 coenzyme that catalyze many reactions. Essential for growth. Deficiency rare, but include cheilosis, glossitis, & stomatitis.

Found in milk, meat, poultry.

Cheilosis, glossitis, stomatitis

C- cracking/sores at corner of mouth.

G- inflammation of tongue, with smooth texture and purplish red color.

S- inflammation in lining of the mouth.

Niacin (B3)

Vital role in release of energy from carb, fat, protien. Found in lean meat, liver, kidney, Yeast, peanut butter, beans.

Deficiency leads to pellagra.


Mucous membrane of mouth and digestive tract become red and inflamed, lesions appear on skin.

Folate acid (B9)

Role in synthesis of DNA & RNA, & formation of red/white blood cells.

Found in cereal, liver, organ meat, milk, eggs. Deficiency resolves in glossitis, diarrhea, poor growth, risk of heart attack.

Vitamin (B12)

Deficiency leads to anemia, neurologic symptoms, increased risk of heart attack. Found in animal sources, vegeterians at risk of deficiency.


Bread, cereal, pasta, rice, potatoes,lima beans.


Butter, cream, salad oils, dressing, olives.


Meat,fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, peanut, nuts, bean.