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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Self Concept
- Is an individual’s conceptualization of himself or herself
- Directly affects one’s self-esteem, or how one feels about himself or herself
Development of Self Concept
- Each stage builds on the tasks of the previous stage
- Self concept is always changing and is based on the following:
- Sense of competency
- Perceived reactions of other’s to one’s body
- Ongoing perceptions and interpretations of the thoughts and feelings of others
- Personal and professional relationships
- Academic and employment-related identity
- Self esteem is usually highest in childhood, drops during adolescence, rises gradually throughout adulthood, and declines again in old age
Components of Interrelated Terms of Self Concept
Components of self concept frequently considered by nurses are identity, body image, and role performance
- Involves the internal sense of individuality wholeness, and consistency of a person over time and in different situations
- The achievement of identity is necessary for intimate relationships because individuals express identity in relationships with others
- More a person identifies with social groups, the greater the person’s self esteem
Body Image
- Involves attitudes related to the body, including physical appearance, structure or function

- Include those related to sexuality, femininity and masculinity, youthfulness, health and strength

- Cognitive growth and physical development also affect body image
- Cultural and societal attitudes and values also influence body image
- Culture and society dictate the accepted norms of body image and influence one’s attitudes
- American society emphasizes youth, beauty, and wholeness
- Western cultures have been socialized to dread the normal aging process
- Eastern cultures view aging very positively and respect older adults
Role Performance
- Is the way in which individuals perceive their ability to carry out significant roles
- Parent, supervisor, or close friend
- To function effectively in multiple roles, a person must know the expected behavior and values, desire to conform to them, and be able to meet the role requirements
Self Esteem
- Is an individual’s overall feeling of self worth or the emotional appraisal of self concept
- Represents the overall judgment of personal worth or value
- Ideal self consists of the aspirations, goals, values, and standards of behavior that a person considers ideal and strives to attain
Stressors Affecting Self Concept
- Self concept stressor is any real or perceived change that threatens identity, body image, or role performance
- Individual’s perception of the stressor is the most important factor in determining his or her response
- Any change in health is a stressor
- Loss of a partner
- Stressors created as a result of a crisis
Identity Stressors
- Stressors affect an individuals identity throughout life, but individuals are particularly vulnerable during adolescence
- Cultural and social stressors, rather than personal stressors, have more impact on an adult’s identity
Identity Confusion
Results when people do not maintain a clear, consistent, and continuous consciousness of personal identity
Body Image Stressors
- Changes in the appearance of the body, such as an amputation, facial disfigurement, or scars from burns, are obvious stressors affecting body image
- Even some elective changes such as breast augmentation or reduction affect body image
- Chronic illnesses
- Negative body image often leads to adverse health outcomes
- Media frequently present positive stories about persons adjusting in a healthy manner following serious disabilities
- Theses stories change public perception of what constitutes a disability
- Providing a social environment that focuses on health and fitness, rather than on weight control, will possibly increase adolescent girls’ satisfaction with their bodies
Role Performance Stressors
- Situational transitions occur when parents, spouses, children, or close friends die or people move, marry, divorce, or change jobs
- Any of these transitions may lead to role conflict, role ambiguity, role strain, or role overload
Role Conflict
- Results when a person has to simultaneously assume two or more roles that are inconsistent, contradictory, or mutually exclusive
- Negotiating a balance of time and energy between her children and parents create role conflicts
- The sick role involves the expectations of others and society regarding how an individual behaves when sick
- Society expectations - take care of yourself, and you will get better
- Co-Workers - need to get the job done
Role Ambiguity
- Involves unclear role expectations, which makes people unsure about what to do or how to do it, creating stress and confusion
- Common in the adolescent years
Role strain
- Combines role conflict and role ambiguity
- Feeling of frustration when a person feels inadequate
Role overload
- Involves having more roles or responsibilities within a role than are manageable
- Unsuccessfully attempts to meet the demands of work while carving out some personal time
Self Esteem Stressors
- Individuals with high self esteem are generally more resilient and are better able to cope with demands and stressors than those with low self esteem
- Perceived inability to meet parental expectations, harsh criticism, inconsistent discipline, and unresolved sibling rivalry reduce the level of self worth of children
- Low self esteem and stressful life events in college age adolescents are potential predictors for suicidal thoughts
- Stressors affecting the self esteem of an adult include failure in work and unsuccessful relationships
Family Effect on Self Concept Development
- Child also gains accepted norms for thinking, feeling, and behaving from family member
- Some literature suggests that parents are most important influences on a child’s development
- High parental support and parental monitoring are related to greater self esteem and lower risk behaviors
- To reverse a client’s negative self-concept first assess the family’s style of relating
Nurses Effect on Client’s Self Concept
- Nurse’s acceptance of a client with an altered self concept helps promote positive change
- Self awareness is critical in understanding and accepting others
- A positive and matter of fact approach to care providers a model for the client and family to follow
- Conveying genuine interest and acceptance
- Nurses who put themselves in the client’s position, will incorporate measures to ease embarrassment, frustration, anger, and denial
- Is essential to assess the client’s perception of a problem and to work collaboratively to resolve self concept issues
- First focus on each component of self concept (identity, body, image and role performance)
- Actual and potential self concept stressors and coping patterns
- Nurses gather much of data regarding self concept through observation of client’s nonverbal behavior and by paying attention to the content of the client’s conversation
- The way in which significant other talk about the client and the significant other’s nonverbal behaviors provide information about what kind of support is available for the client
Client Expectations
- Person experiencing increased muscle tension, shakiness a sense of being “rattled” or restlessness
- Expresses a predominantly negative self appraisal, including inability to handle situations or events and difficulty making decisions
- Key indicators of a client’s self concept are nonverbal behaviors