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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The neurologic system is responsible for coordinating and regulating all body functions. It consists of two structural components. What are they?
1. The central nervous system (CNS)

2. The peripheral nervous system.
The _____ encompasses the brain and spinal cord, which are covered by meninges, three layers of connective tissue that protect and nourish the CNS. T
The ______________ is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which is formed in the ventricles of the brain and flows through the ventricles into the space. This fluid-filled space cushions the brain and spinal cords, nourishes the CNS, and removes waste materials.
subarachnoid space
What are the four major divisions of the brain?


2. Diencephalon

3. Brain stem

4. Cerebellum
The _____________ a bundle of nerve fibers responsible for communication between the hemispheres
corpus callosum
Each hemisphere of the Cerebrum sends and receives impulses from the opposite sides of the body and consists of four lobes that are ______,______,________, and ________
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
The ___________ lies beneath the cerebral hemispheres and consists of the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Most sensory impulses travel through the gray matter of the __________, which is responsible for screening and directing the impulses to specific areas in the cerebral cortex.
The _________ (which is part of the autonomic nervous system, which is a part of the peripheral nervous system) is responsible for regulating many body functions including water balance, appetite, vital signs (temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiratory rate), sleep cycles, pain perception, and emotional status.
The ____________ serves as a relay center for ear and eye reflexes and relays impulses between the higher cerebral centers and the lower pons, medulla, cerebellum, and spinal cord.
The _______ links the cerebellum to the cerebrum and the midbrain to the medulla. It is responsible for various reflex actions.
The _____________contains the nuclei for cranial nerves and has centers that control and regulate respiratory function, heart rate and force, and blood pressure.
medulla oblongata
The ___________ does not initiate movement, its primary functions include coordination and smoothing of voluntary movements, maintenance of equilibrium, and maintenance of muscle tone.
The spinal cord is located in the vertebral canal and extends from the medulla oblongata to the _________vertebra.
first lumbar L1
This cranial nerve carries smell impulses from nasal mucous membrane to brain? What is it?
I (olfactory)
This cranial nerve carries visual impulses from eye to brain.
II (optic)
This cranial nerve contracts eye muscles to control eye movements (interior lateral, medial, and superior), constricts pupils, and elevates eyelids
III (oculomotor)
This cranial nerve contracts one eye muscle to control inferomedial eye movement.
IV (trochlear)
This cranial nerve carries sensory impulses of pain, touch, and temperature from the face to the brain Influences clenching and lateral jaw movements (biting, chewing)
V (trigeminal)
This cranial nerve controls lateral eye movements
VI (abducens)
This cranial nerve contains sensory fibers for taste on anterior two thirds of tongue and stimulates secretions from salivary glands (submaxillary and sublingual) and tears from lacrimal glands.
VII (facial)
This cranial nerve contains sensory fibers for hearing and balance
VIII (acoustic, vestibulocochlear)
This cranial nerve Contains sensory fibers for taste on posterior third of tongue and sensory fibers of the pharynx that result in the “gag reflex” when stimulated
IX (glossopharyngeal)
This cranial nerve carries sensations from the throat, larynx, heart, lungs, bronchi, gastrointestinal tract, and abdominal viscera Promotes swallowing, talking, and production of digestive juices
X (vagus)
This cranial nerve Innervates neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid and trapezius) that promote movement of the shoulders and head rotation. Also promotes some movement of the larynx
XI (spinal accessory)
This cranial nerve innervates tongue muscles that promote the movement of food and talking.
XII (hypoglossal)
Patients who are experiencing symptoms associated with the neurologic system (such as headaches or memory loss) may be very fearful that they have a serious condition such as a _______________ or _________________
metastatic brain tumor or Alzheimer's.
True or false
Morning headaches that subside after arising may be an early sign of increased intracranial pressure such as with a brain tumor.
Imbalance and difficulty coordinating or controlling movements are seen in neurologic diseases involving the cerebellum, basal ganglia, extrapyramidal tracts, or the vestibular part of cranial nerve _____________.
VIII (acoustic)
Dizziness or lightheadedness may be related to these four disorders:
1. carotid artery disease

2. cerebellar abscess

3. Meniere's disease

4. inner ear infection.
A decrease in the ability to smell may be related to a dysfunction of cranial nerve___________or a brain tumor.
I (olfactory)
A decrease in the ability to taste may be related to dysfunction of cranial nerves ___________ or _____________.
VII (facial) or IX (glossopharyngeal).
Ringing in the ears and decreased ability to hear may occur with dysfunction of cranial nerve______________.
VIII (acoustic)
Changes in vision may occur with dysfunction of cranial nerve __________, increased intracranial pressure, or brain tumors.
II (optic)
Damage to cranial nerves _____________,_________, or _________ may cause double or blurred vision
III (oculomotor), IV (trochlear), or VI (abducens)
Transient blind spots may be an early sign of a ______________.
cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
Injury to the _____________ can impair the ability to use or understand verbal language.
cerebral cortex
True or false

Difficulty swallowing may relate to CVA, Parkinson's disease, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or dysfunction of cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal), X (vagus), or XII (hypoglossal).
true or false

Recent memory (24-hour memory) is often impaired in amnestic disorders, Korsakoff's syndrome, delirium, and dementia.
Remote memory (past dates and historical accounts) may be impaired in____________disorders.
cerebral cortex
_______________ can result from a deficiency in niacin, folic acid, or vitamin B12.
Peripheral neuropathy
What are the 5 warning signs of a CVA aka stroke?
1. Sudden numbness (face, arm, leg), especially if on only one side of body

2. Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding speech

3. Sudden vision problems in one or both eyes

4. Sudden trouble walking, dizziness, loss of balance or coordination

5. Sudden severe headache with no known cause
If meningitis is suspected, the examiner may try to elicit _____________ and __________signs, which are characteristic of meningeal irritation.
Brudzinski's and Kernig's
When testing cranial nerve I you find that your patient can not identify the smell. What medical terminology would you use to document this in your finding?
neurogenic anosmia
______________ occurs with increased intracranial pressure from intracranial hemorrhage or a brain tumor.
___________(drooping of the eyelid) is seen with weak eye muscles such as in myasthenia gravis.
__________ is the rhythmic oscillation of the eyes
Limited eye movement through the six cardinal fields of gaze is an indicator of ____________
increased intracranial pressure.
__________________ is the paralysis of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nerves
Paralytic strabismus
_______________ pupils, CNS syphilis, meningitis, brain tumor, alcoholism.
Argyll Robertson
Constricted, fixed pupils, narcotics abuse or damage to this part of the brain?
If pupils are unilaterally dilated pupil unresponsive to light or accommodation, the nurse suspects damage to cranial nerve_____________
III (oculomotor)
Patients pupils are constricted and unresponsive to light or accommodation. The nurse suspects ________________
lesions of the sympathetic nervous system.
Patient presents with bilateral muscle weakness as seen with peripheral or central nervous system dysfunction. Unilateral weakness may indicate a lesion of cranial nerve ___________.
V (trigeminal)
When testing a patient with sharp and dull stimuli and light touch to the forehead, cheeks, and chin the nurse notices the patients inability to feel and correctly identify facial stimuli. What does he or she suspect?
Inability to feel and correctly identify facial stimuli occurs with lesions of the trigeminal nerve or lesions in the spinothalamic tract or posterior columns.
Inability to identify correct flavor on anterior two-thirds of the tongue suggests impairment of cranial ___________
nerve VII (facial)
Test the client's hearing ability in each ear and perform the Weber and Rinne tests to assess the cochlear (auditory) component of cranial nerve
VIII (acoustic, vestibulocochlear)
When testing these cranial nerves the uvula and soft palate rise bilaterally and symmetrically on phonation.
IX (glossopharyngeal) and X (vagus).
An absent gag reflex may be seen with lesions of cranial nerves _____________ or ______________.
IX (glossopharyngeal) or X (vagus)
Dysphagia or hoarseness may indicate a lesion of cranial nerve ______________,____________, or ____________
IX (glossopharyngeal) or X (vagus) or other neurologic disorder
How would you preform a Romberg test?
Ask the client to stand erect with arms at side and feet together. Note any unsteadiness or swaying. Then with the client in the same body position, ask the client to close the eyes for 20 seconds. Again note any imbalance or swaying.
If a Romberg test is positive what does it indicate?
Swaying and moving feet apart to prevent fall is seen with disease of the posterior columns, vestibular dysfunction, or cerebellar disorders.
Inability to stand or hop on one foot is seen with muscle weakness or disease of the _______________.
Medical Terminology for cerebellar disease.
absence of touch sensation
decreased sensitivity to touch
increased sensitivity to touch
absence of pain sensation
decreased sensitivity to pain
increased sensitivity to pain
Temperature and pain sensations travel in the ___________________ , so temperature need not be tested if pain sensation is intact.
lateral spinothalamic tract
astereognosis is?
Inability to correctly identify objects
How would you test graphesthesia?
Use a blunt instrument to write a number, such as 2, 3 or 5, on the palm of the client's hand then ask the client to identify the number. Repeat with another number on the other hand.
To test extinction the nurse would?
Simultaneously touch the client in the same area on both sides of the body at the same point. Ask the client to identify the area touched.