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22 Cards in this Set

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Symbioses

Close associations between organisms that are advantageous to at least one of the members, can be obligatory or nonobligatory, involve animals, plants, and other microbes, and can include complex multipartner interactions

Symbionts

members of symbiotic relationships

Endosymbionts

symbionts that live internally

Ectosymbionts

symbionts that are affixed to the outside surfaces or their partners

Mutualism

most intimate and interdependent type of sybiosis, implies all members share in the benefits of the relationship

Many mutualistic associations have devoloped over hundreds of millions and even billions of years of shared evolution, a process termed _________.

Coevolution

Obligate Mutualism

Organisms that are so intimately associated that they require each other to survive.

Nonobligate Mutualism

Organisms interact at the cellular level for mutual benefit, but they can be separated and live apart.

Commensalism

The members have an unequal relationship, one partner is favored by the association and the other is not harmed or helped.

Parasitism

A microbe invades the sterile regions of a host and occupies its tissues and cells,causing some degree of damage.

Aerobe

utilizes oxygen and can detoxify it

Obligate aerobe

cannot grow without oxygen
Facultative anaerobe
utilizes oxygen but can also grow in its absence
Microaerophilic
requires only a small amount of oxygen
Anaerobe
does not utilize oxygen
Obligate anaerobe
lacks the enzymes to detoxify oxygen so cannot survive in an oxygen environment
Aerotolerant anaerobes
do not utilize oxygen but can survive and grow in its presence
Most microobes grow at pH between 6 and 8
neutrophiles
Acidophiles
grow at extreme acid pH
Alkalinophiles
grow at extreme alkaline pH
Halophiles
require a high concentration of salt
Osmotolerant
do not require high concentration of solute but can tolerate it when it occurs