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### 14 Cards in this Set

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 Properties of gases – Partial Pressures – Gas Solubility Diffusion of gases-pressure gradients-surface area-respiratory surface thickness-connective transport (bulk flow) Dalton's law of partial pressureIdeal gas law – The pressure exerted by a gas is related to the number of moles of the gas and the volume of the chamber – Ideal gas law • PV = nRT – Air is a mixture of gases • Nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), argon (0.9%), and carbon dioxide (0.03%) total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures exerted by the individual constituents of the mixture Boyle's Law – Fluids and gasses flow from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure – Boyle’s law • P1V1 = P2V2 – P1V1 = initial pressure and volume of the gas – P2V2 = final pressure and volume of the gas solubility of gases -solubilities of different gases are different-solubilities of gases in aqueous solutions decrease strongly with increasing water temperature-solubilities of gases in aqueous solutions decrease with increasing salinity concentration of 02 in freshwater, seawater and air Diffusion of oxygen through water (sea turtle example) Diffusion of oxygen through water can only occur if the distance is less than 1mm, and it occurs more slowly than through airreplacement of air with water in interstitial spaces of beach sand can cause anoxia in a sea turtle nest because diffusion is far slower through water than through air-drop in O2 resulted in eggs that were dead function of water beetle's bubble demonstration of oxygen moving down its pressure gradientoxygen diffuses into bubble based on partial pressure and concentration of water and the bubble-the volume of the bubble is assemed to be constant as O2 is withdrawn. -the principle gas in bubble is N2-partial pressure rules and O2 diffuses into bubble principles of gas diffusion used for diving the partial pressures of gases increase during diving because the air in a diver's lungs is at elevated pressure. A diver must correctly manage the increase blood partial pressures. -equilibrium is attained with respect to any given gas when the partial pressure of the gas is uniform everywhere in a system-scuba air regulator keeps pressure of lungs at same pressure as ambient pressure at that depth gas exchange – Unicellular and small multicellular organisms rely on diffusion for gas exchange – Larger organisms must rely on a combination of bulk flow and diffusion for gas exchange • Bulk flow (Convective transport) – Ventilation » Moving medium (air or water) over respiratory surface (lung or gill) – Circulation » Transport of gases in the circulatory system anchovy example Body diameter ~0.6 mm in diameter, whichis approaching the maximum for uptake ofoxygen by diffusion. -Diffusion from a high partial pressure source through the aqueous medium of tissue can be expected to supply the ordinary O2 requirements of aerobic catabolism over short distances-As larva grows the ability to obtain O2 from diffusion decreases and so gill and a circulatory system develops external repsiration vs internal respiration External respiration • Gas exchange at the respiratory surface • Respiratory surfaces vary greatly • Usually convective, unless animal is small enough for diffusion across body wall Internal respiration • Gas exchange at the tissue • Always diffusion concept of physiological cascade gases always diffuse from regions of high partial pressure to regions of low partial pressure-diffusion occurs more readily through air than water convection (bulk flow) and diffusion in human body convective transport by movement of inhaled air from the atmosphere to depths of lungs-diffusion across a gas filled alveolar end sac then through the alveolar epithelium and the epithelium of a pulmonary blood capillary to red blood cell. -convective transport by circulation of blood-diffusion from a red blood cell in capillary to mitochondrian in a muscle cell