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27 Cards in this Set

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*carry O2 rich blood away from the heart
(exc. pulmonary arteries, which are oxygen poor)

* stiff walls keep shape

*classified as elastic, muscular, arterioles

*able to vasoconstrict/ vasodialate


*thin walls made of endothelial cells and basement membrane (no tunica media or tunica externa)
*site of nutrient & gas exchange

*tissues with higher metabolic activity have more capillaries (ex. muscles)


*carry blood back to heart for pulmonary flow

*oxygen poor blood

*stretchy walls expand when blood enters

*classified as venules, small veins, medium large veins

Types of capillaries

Continuous (no holes, opening in walls, most typical throughout the body)

Fenestrated (cell membrane has pinholes for filtration, found in kidney, intestine, choroid plexus)

Sinusoidal (large opening between cells so blood cells can squeeze out; found in liver spleen, red marrow)

Tunica Interna

endothelium that lines the inside of all vessels

veins: form valves to promote 1 directional blood flow

Tunica Media

middle layer, contains muscle

arteries: this layer is thick aiding in vasoconstriction and vasodialation

Tunica Externa

outer connective tissue layer

3 ways substances move b/t tissue cells and capillaries

1. diffusion

2. trancytosis

3. bulk flow

What is filtration? Name 2 types.

def: movement of fluid from blood into interstitial fluid at the arterial end

Blood Hydrostatic Pressure (BHP)- filtration

* pressure capillary wall feels from vol of water in the blood

Interstitial fluid Osmotic Pressure (IFOP)- filtration

*pressure of proteins which are briefly in the IF creating a pulling force which draws fluid into the capillaries.

What is reabsorption? Name 2 types.

def: movement of fluid from interstitial fluid to blood at the venule end

Blood Colloid Osmotic Pressure (BCOP)- reabsorption

*solutes in blood draw things toward them into the blood stream

Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure (IFHP)- reabsorption


Happens when filtration exceeds re-absorption. Excess fluid ends up in the interstitial space.

Can be caused by liver disease, burns,

malnutrition and kidney disease.

Vericose veins

Result of malfunctioned or damaged valves.

Vericose veins in the anal canal are called hemorrhoids.

Blood pressure

BP = systolic / diastolic (healthy BP 110/70)

contraction / relaxation

Mean Arterial Pressure

average pressure in the arteries
(can't measure BP in veins)

MAP = CO x Resistance

CO = total vol. of blood being pumped per min.


Resistance is dependent on 3 factors:

1. diameter of blood vessel smaller = more resistant

2. length longer = more resistant (ex. obese=more angiogenesis)

3. viscosity high viscosity=high resistance

Factors aiding in venous return

skeletal pump & respiratory pump

What is syncope?

What are some causes?

def: fainting due to lack of blood flow to the brain.

vasodepressor (emotional stress)

situational (pressure stress from urination, defecation or severe coughing)

orthostatic hypotension (standing up too fast lowers blood pressure)

sensory receptors for CV center

proprioceptors - movement of bones, muscles, limbs

baroreceptors - measure change in BP

chemoreceptors - monitor concentrations of substances in food (ex. caffeine inc. HR)

cardiac accelerator nerve

Increased signals result in increased heart rate.

vagus nerve

increased signals act to decrease heart rate.

Antidiuretic Hormone


* helps retain H2O

* vasoconstrictor

* made by pituitary gland

* made to help resolve low BP

Angiotension II

* turns on adrenal production of aldesterone

* vasoconstrictor

* part of RAA path

* made if low BP


* helps retain NA+

* stimulates thirst

* made by adrenal glands

* made if low BP

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide


* stimulates NA+ loss

* vasodialation

* made by atrial cells

* made if high BP

Nitric Oxide


* vasodialator

* made when high BP

Epinepherine & Norepinephrine (fight or flight)

* vasoconstrict urinary system

* vasodialates skeletal system

Physical control of BP


- hot= vasodilator

- cold= vasoconstrictor


- vasodilators: NO, H+, K+, histamine

- vasoconstrictor: thromboxane, seratonin