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15 Cards in this Set

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The proportion of phenotypic variance that is due to additive genetic differences among individuals is referred to as

narrow-sense heritability.

A character that is insensitive to alteration by environmental factors is

environmentally canalized.

The phenotypic effect of synergistic interactions among loci is referred to as

epistasis.

Heritability estimates often inaccurately predict the change in a trait over many generations of artificial selection because of the effects of

All of the following:


a. linkage disequilibrium.


b. new genetic mutations.


c. a change in genetic variance.


d. natural selection.

Which of the following represents the phenotypic variance (VP) in a phenotypic trait?

VG + VE

Which of the following would likely cause the greatest mean evolutionary rates of morphological characters in a large population with a constant mutation rate?

Directional selection

When the effect of the environment on a phenotype differs from one genotype to another in a population and the reaction norms of the genotypes are parallel,

an interaction is not needed in the components of phenotypic variance (VG and VE).

What is meant by “Evolution may proceed along ‘genetic lines of least resistance’”?

Characters with little genetic variation will constrain the rate of natural selection; correlated characters may increase in fitness less rapidly, because they can evolve only along the greatest axis of variation.

QTL mapping is a method for detecting loci that contribute to quantitative trait variation. This method relies on the association between phenotypic differences and molecular markers. A QTL typically refers to a

d. chromosome region that may include many genes.

Anthropogenic climate change is taking place at such a fast rate that many species will fail to adapt quickly enough to avoid extinction. Which of the following may constrain evolution in response to human-induced climate change?

All of the following:


a. Lack of heritable genetic variation for relevant traits


b. Genetic correlations between relevant traits and other traits that conflict with the direction of selection


c. Loss of genetic variation in relevant traits by genetic drift in dwindling populations


d. Lack of new mutations that allow adaptation to new climate conditions

The hypothesis that functionally related characters should be genetically correlated is called

d. phenotypic integration.

Genetic correlations can have two causes: _______ and _______.

b. linkage disequilibrium; pleiotropy

Stabilizing selection is often observed in nature because of

trade-offs.

The response of a quantitative character to selection depends on the heritability of the character and the selection differential. Response to selection will be greatest when heritability is _______ and selection is _______.

e. 0.75; 4

In correlated selection, selection favors some combination of character states over others, usually because the characters

b. are functionally related.