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What are the four characteristics of abnormality?

Statistically rare


Deviance from social norms Personal distress


Interference with normal functioning

DIPS

Abnormalities

Any pattern of behavior that causes people significant distress, causes them to harm themselves or others, or interferes with their ability to function in daily life

Defines behavior disorders

Rosenhan Study

Pseudo - patients could not be distinguished from regular patients. Behaviors were viewed as abnormal because of contextual bias

Biological models

Psychological disorders have a biological cause. Also known as medical model.

Psychoanalysis perspective

Behavioral abnormalities is the result of repressing undesirable thoughts memories and concerns.

Ignore the existence of traumatic events/memories causes abnormalities

Behaviorism perspective

Abnormal behaviors are learned through a series of rewards and punishments

Cognitive perspective

Abnormal behavior results from illogical thinking patterns

Over generalization

Phobias

Irrational fear that causes undue personal distress and or interference with normal functioning

Germ-a-phobe

Social phobias

Fear of interacting with others or being in a social situation

Social akwardness

Specific phobias

Fear of something in particular

Obsessions

Intruding thoughts that occur again and again

Compulsions

Ritualistic behavior that reduces anxiety

Panic disorder

Sudden onset of extreme panic; impending sense of doom

Symptoms: racing heart rate, rapid breathing, out of body experience, sweating, and dry mouth

Generalized anxiety disorder

Excessive anxiety and worry occur more days than not for at least 6 months that interferes with normal functioning and causes personal distress

Can often lead to depression and other disorders

Post traumatic stress disorder

Invited disorder that develops after exposure to a traumatic event, oppressive situation, abuse, or disaster

What causes anxiety disorders?

there are probably many causes of anxiety disorders. Psychologist approach anxiety disorders using the model of their choice.

Psychoanalytic approach to anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders are the result of repressed feelings and thoughts

Behavioral approach to anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders are learned over time

Cognitive approach to anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders are the result of illogical, irrational thinking patterns

Magnification

Exaggeration of events, ideas, feelings

My dad telling stories

Overgeneralization

Single negative event interpreted as a pattern

Thinking about how the world ends

All or Nothing thinking

Must be perfect or it's completely ruined

Perfectionist

Minimization

Only looking at the bad, minimizing the positive

Pestimistic

Mood disorders

Disturbance in affect or emotion. Also called affective disorder

Mild mood disorders

Dysthymia


Cyclothymia

Major mood disorders

Major clinical depression and bipolar

Dysthymia

A moderate depression that lasts for two years or more and is typically associated with some outside stressor

Cyclothymia

A cycling between sadness and happiness that last more than 2 years

Major clinical depression

Deeply depressed mood that comes on fairly suddenly and is out of proportion with the circumstances surrounding it

Bipolar disorder

Cycling between manic episodes and depressive episodes

Schizophrenia

Long-lasting psychotic disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, emotions, behavior, and perception

Positive symptoms of schizophrenia

Hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, irrational thought, word salad

negative symptoms of schizophrenia

Flat affect, catatonia, social withdrawal, lack of speech

Types of schizophrenia

Disorganized


Catatonic


Paranoid


Undifferentiated


Residual

DURP C

Disorganized schizophrenia

Confused speech patterns, vivid infrequent hallucinations, inappropriate affect, socially impaired, with poor hygiene.

Catatonic schizophrenia

Does not respond to the outside world. Will not move for hours on end, often staying in past years. Totally on or off

Paranoid schizophrenia

Suffers from hallucinations and delusions, often auditory, and which they believe they are being persecuted or pursued.

Undifferentiated schizophrenia

Mase shift from one type of schizophrenia to another.

Residual schizophrenia

After a major episode of schizophrenia. Is over. Person may return to somewhat normal but retain odd, quirky symptoms

What causes schizophrenia?

A biological, neurodegenerative disorder

Dopamine hypothesis

Siry that it is excessive dopamine that causes schizophrenia