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80 Cards in this Set

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Everything done in the nervous system involves 3 fundaments steps:

1- Sensory function detects internal and external stimuli




2- Interpretation is made (analysis)




3- A motor response occurs (reaction)

The nervous system _______ environmental changes that impact the body, then works in


tandem with the endocrine system to ___ to such events.

DETECTS; RESOPONDS



The CNS (the central nervous system) includes:
THE BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

The PNS (the peripheral nervous system)


includes:

ALL NERVE TISSUE OUTSIDE THE CNS




(including nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses, and sensory receptors)

What receives, processes and transmits


information by manipulating the flow of charge across their membranes?

NEURONS


What play a major role in the support and


nutrition of the brain, but do not manipulate the information?

NEUROGLIA




(they maintain the internal environment so


that neurons can do their jobs)

_____ are neurons that convey information from sensory receptors in the head, body wall and limbs towards the CNS.




A- Somatic Sensory (Afferent) Neurons


B- Somatic Motor (Efferent) Neurons


C- None of the above

A- SOMATIC SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS

______ are neurons that conduct impulses away from the CNS towards the skeletal muscles


under voluntary control in the periphery.




A- Somatic Sensory (Afferent) Neurons


B- Somatic Motor (Efferent) Neurons


C- Interneuons

B- SOMATIC MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS

____ are any neurons that conduct impulses


between afferent and efferent neurons within the CNS.




A- Somatic Sensory (Afferent) Neurons


B- Somatic Motor (Efferent) Neurons


C- Interneuons

C- INTERNEURONS
The SNS (somatic nervous system) consists of:

SOMATIC SENSORY (AFFERENT) NEURONS,


SOMATIC MOTOR (EFFERENT) NEURONS AND


INERNEURONS.

The ANS (autonomic nervous system) consists of:
SENSORY NEURONS AND MOTOR NEURONS

______ convey information from autonomic


sensory receptors located primarily in visceral organs like the stomach or lungs to the CNS

SENSORY NEURONS

_______ under involuntary control conduct nerve impulses from the CNS to smooth muscle,


cardiac muscle, and glands.

MOTOR NEURONS
The motor part of the ANS (autonomic nervous system) consists of two branches which usually have opposing actions. What are these two branches?

THE SYMPATHETIC DIVISIONS (fight or flight)




and




THE PARASYMPATHETIC (calm)

The operations of the ________, the "brain of the gut" involuntarily controls GI propulsion, and acid and hormonal secretions.
ENS (ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM)

_______ are small masses of neuronal cell bodies located outside the brain and spinal cord,


usually closely associated with cranial and spinal nerves.

GANGLIA
______ are the real "functional unit", while ______ are smaller but greatly outnumber them.
NEURONS; NEUROGLIA

Neurons gather information at ______ and


process it in the dendritic tree and cell body.




A- Axon


B- Dendrite


C- Cell body


D- Axon terminal

B- DENDRITE

Then they transmit the information down their _____ to the _____ terminals.






A- Axon


B- Dendrite


C- Cell body


D- Axon terminal

A- AXONS

The site of communication between two neurons or between a neuron and another effector cell is called a _________.




A- Synapse


B- Synaptic Cleft


C- Axon Terminal


D- Neurotransmitter

A- SYNAPSE

The _____ is the gap between the pre and


post-synaptic cells.






A- Synapse


B- Synaptic Cleft


C- Synaptic Vesicles


D- Neurotransmitter

B- SYNAPTIC CLEFT

Synaptic end bulbs and other varicosities on the axon terminals of presynaptic neurons contain many tiny membrane-enclosed sacs called _________ that store packets of neurotransmitter chemicals.




A- Synapse


B- Synaptic Cleft


C- Synaptic Vesicles


D- Neurotransmitter

C- SYNAPTIC VESICLES

______ conveys axoplasm in one direction only - from the cell body toward the axon terminals.




A- Fast axonal transport


B- Slow axonal transport


C- None of the above


D- Both A & B are both correct

B- SLOW AXONAL TRANSPORT

_________ moves materials in both directions.






A- Fast axonal transport


B- Slow axonal transport


C- Fast retrograde transport


D- Both A & B are both correct

A- FAST AXONAL TRANSPORT

Substances that enter the neuron at the axon terminals are also moved to the cell body by ___________. This is why an injury to the head or neck is more serious than another areas of the body.




A- Fast axonal transport


B- Slow axonal transport


C- Fast retrograde transport


D- Both A & B are both correct

C- FAST RETROGRADE TRANSPORT

What features are used to classify the various neurons in the body?




A- If it doesn't have dendrites, it's not a neuron


B- Structure of the neuron


C- Function of the neuron


D- Both B & C are correct

D- BOTH B & C ARE CORRECT



________ is based on the number of processes (axons or dendrites) extending from the cell body.
STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATIONS

_______ neurons have several dendrites and only one axon and are located throughout the brain and spinal cord.




A- Bipolar


B- Unipolar


C- Multipolar


D- None of the above

C- MULTIPOLAR

________ neurons have one main dendrite and one axon.




A- Bipolar


B- Unipolar


C- Multipolar


D- None of the above

A- BIPOLAR

________ neurons contain one process which


extends from the body and divides into a central branch that functions as an axon and as a


dendritic root.




A- Bipolar


B- Unipolar


C- Multipolar


D- None of the above

B- UNIPOLAR

The _______ of neurons is based on


electrophysiological properties (excitatory or


inhibitory and the direction in which the AP is conveyed with respect to the CNS.





FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION

_______ do not generate or conduct nerve


impulses, they support the neurons.

NEUROGLIA

_______ support neurons in the CNS and maintain the chemical environment.




A- Oligodendrocytes


B- Astrocytes


C- Microglia


D- Ependymal Cells

B- ASTROCYTES

_________ produce myelin in the CNS.




A- Oligodendrocytes


B- Astrocytes


C- Microglia


D- Ependymal Cells



A- OLIGODENDROCYTES

_________ participate in phagocytosis in the CNS.




A- Oligodendrocytes


B- Astrocytes


C- Microglia


D- Ependymal Cells

C- MICROGLIA

______ form and circulate cerebral spinal fluid in the CNS.




A- Oligodendrocytes


B- Astrocytes


C- Microglia


D- Ependymal Cells

D- EPENDYMAL CELLS
What are the 2 types of neuroglia in the PNS and what are their functions?

SATELLITE CELLS (SUPPORT NEURONS)




SCHWANN CELLS (PRODUCE MYELIN)

_______ is the process of forming a myelin sheath which insulates and increases nerve impulse speed.
MYELINATION
_______ are the gaps in the myelin sheath.
NODES OF RANCIER


The cell bodies of neurons lose their mitotic


features and birth and can only be repaired through ________ after an injury (they are never replaced by daughter cells as occurs with


epithelial tissues).

REGENERATION

The outer nucleated cytoplasmic layer of the schwann cell, which encloses the myelin sheath, is the ______.




A- White matter


B- Grey matter


C- Neurolemma


D- None of the above



C- NEUROLEMMA

________ refers to the loss or destruction of


myelin sheaths around axons. it may result from disease, or from medical treatments such as


radiation therapy and chemotherapy.

DEMYLINATION

_________ of he brain and spinal cord is formed by aggregations of myelinated axons from man neurons.




A- White matter


B- Grey matter


C- Neurolemma


D- None of the above

A- WHITE MATTER




(the lipid part of myelin imparts the white


appearance)

________ (colored this way because it lacks


myelin) of the brain and spinal cord is formed from neuronal cell bodies and dendrites.




A- White matter


B- Grey matter


C- Neurolemma


D- None of the above



B- GREY MATTER
Like muscle fibers, neurons are ____________. They communicate with one another using two types of electrical signals.
ELECTRICALLY EXCITABLE

_________ are used for short-distance


communication only.




A- Graded potentials


B- Action potentials


C- Any potential


D- None of the above

A- GRADED POTENTIALS



______ allow communication over long distances within the body.




A- Graded potentials


B- Action potentials


C- Any potential


D- None of the above

B- ACTION POTEINTIALS

Producing electrical signals in neuron depends on the existence of a ____________. A cell's _____ is created using joint gradient and a variety of ion channels that open or close in response to


specific stimuli

RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL (RMP)
________ are present in the plasma membrane. When they re open, they allow specific ions to move across he plasma membrane down their electrochemical gradient.
ION CHANNELS

_________ respond to a neurotransmitter and are mainly concentrated at the synapse.




A- Leakage channels


B- Mechanically-gated channels


C- Ligand-gated channels


D- Voltage-gated channels

C- LIGAND-GATED CHANNELS

_______ respond to changes in the transmembrane electrical potential and are mainly located along the neuronal axon.






A- Leakage channels


B- Mechanically-gated channels


C- Ligand-gated channels


D- Voltage-gated channels

D- VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS

_________ respond to mechanical deformation (applying pressure to a receptor).






A- Leakage channels


B- Mechanically-gated channels


C- Ligand-gated channels


D- Voltage-gated channels

B- MECHANICALLY-GATED CHANNELS

__________ are also gated, but they are not active and they open and close randomly.






A- Leakage channels


B- Mechanically-gated channels


C- Ligand-gated channels


D- Voltage-gated channels

A- LEAKAGE CHANNELS
A neuron's _____ is measured at rest, when it's not conducting a nerve impulse.
RMP (RESTING MEMBRANE POTENTIAL)


The RMP is slightly negative because _________


favor a gradient where more K+ leaks out, than Na+ leaks in (there are ore K+ channels than Na+ channels).

LEAKAGE CHANNELS
A cell that exhibits an RMP is said to be ______.
POLARIZED

In this state, the cell is primed - it is already to produce an action potential. In order to do so, _________ must first be produced in order to


depolarize the cell to threshold.

GRADED POTENTIALS
From the RMP, a stimulus that causes the cell to be less negatively charged with respect to the extracellular fluid is a __________________, an a stimulus that causes the cell to be ore negatively charged is a hyperpolarizing graded potential.
DEPOLARIZING GRADED POTENTIAL

In contrast to graded potentials, an ______, or


impulse is a signal which travels the length of the neurons.

ACTION POTENTIAL (AP)
If a neuron receives a ___________, a full strength nerve impulse is produced and spreads down the axon of the neuron to the axon terminal.
TRESHOLD (LIMINAL) STIMULUS

During an action potential, what two


phases occur?

DEPOLARIZING PHASE AND REPOLARIZING PHASE
While the coltage0gated K+ channels are open, outflow of K+ may be large enough to cause an ________ of the action potential.
AFTER-HYPERPOLARIZING

After initiating an action potentials, there is a


period of time called the ________ during which a cell cannot generate another AP, no matter how strong stimulus.




A- Relative refractory period


B- Propagation of the AP


C- Absolute refractory period

C- ABSOLUTE REFRACTORY PERIOD

The ______ is the period of time during which a second action potential can be initiated, but only by a larger-than-normal stimulus.




A- Relative refractory period


B- Propagation of the AP


C- Absolute refractory period

A- RELATIVE REFRACTORY PERIOD

_______ down he length of the axon begins at the trigger zone near the axon hillock.




A- Relative refractory period


B- Propagation of the AP


C- Absolute refractory period

B- PROPAGATION OF THE AP
In addition to the nodes of Ranvier that allow salutatory conduction, the speed of an AP is also affected by:

1- THE AXON DIAMETER


2- THE AMOUNT O MYELINATION


3- THE TEMPERATURE



_______ are of medium size and speed (15m/sec), and comprise myelinated visceral sensory &


autonomic preganglionic neurons.




A- A fibers


B- B fibers


C- C fibers

B- B FIBERS

_______ are the smallest and slowest (2m/sec) and comprise unmyelinated sensory and autonomic motor neurons.




A- A fibers


B- B fibers


C- C fibers

C- C FIBERS

_________ are large, fast (130m/sec), myelinated neurons that carry touch and pressure sensations; many motor neurons are also of this type.





A- A fibers


B- B fibers


C- C fibers

A- A FIBERS

The ________ converts an electrical signal (nerve impulse) into a chemical signal (released


neurotransmitter).

PRESYNAPTIC NEURON

The ________ receives the chemical signal and in turn generates an electrical signal (postsynaptic potential).
POSTSYNAPTIC NEURON
Both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters are present in the:
CNS AND PNS
The same neurotransmitter may ne excitatory in some locations and ______ in others.
INHIBITORY
What was can a neurotransmitter's effects be modified?

1- SYNTHESIS CAN BE STIMULATED OR INHIBITED




2- RELEASE CAN BE BLOCKED OR ENHANCED




3- REMOVALS CAN BE STIMULATED OR BLOCKED




4- THE RECEPTOR SITE CAN BE BLOCKED OR ACTIATED.

______ is released by nearly all excitatory


neurons in he brain.




A- GABA


B- Glutamate

B- GLUTAMATE

________ is an inhibitory neurotransmitter for 1/3 of all brain synapses.






A- GABA


B- Glutamate

A- GABA

__________ causes a depolarization of the postsynaptic cell, bringing it closer to threshold, so the postsynaptic cell does become more


excitable.




A- Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)


B- Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

A- EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL (ESPS)



_______ hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic cell


taking it farther from threshold.




A- Excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)


B- Inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP)

B- INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIAL (IPSP)

_______ is accomplished by diffusion out of the synaptic cleft, enzymatic degradations, and


re-uptake by cell and is essential for normal function.

REMOVAL OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTER

________ is the process accomplished by the postsynaptic neuron when it combines all


excitatory and inhibitory inputs and responds accordingly.

INTEGRATION