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53 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
how many layers in the eye?
Three: sclera, choroid, and retina
white part of the eye

transparent portion of the sclera
colored portion of the eye containing muscles
opening at the center of the iris
Aqueous Humor
watery fluid that fills the anterior cavity of the eye
clear or opaque oval structure
middle layer of tissue
Vitreous humor
gel like substance behind lens that helps to maintain theshape of the eye
– photosensitive layer that contains specialized nerve cells called rods andcones
visual receptors sensitive to low intensity light that discriminate betweenshades of light and dark, and function in the perception of shapes and movement.
visual receptors specialized for color perception and visual acuity(sharpness of vision)
Fovea centralis
area of sharpest vision in center of retina which contains thehighest concentration of cones
Optic Disc (blind spot)
area where the optic nerve leaves the eye (has novisual receptors)
Lacrimal glands
produce tears
covering over the sclera and inner surface of the eyelids
irregular curvature of the eyeball
opaque regions in the lens
Normal vision
(Gk. presbus, old man; -opia, visual condition). Loss of the ability of thelens to focus closely. Caused by a loss of flexibility of the lens, which occurs aroundage 40 to every person. There is no prevention.
color blindness
– sex linked inherited condition occurring primarily in males
inflammation of the conjunctiva (commonly called pink eye)
increase in pressure due to an overproduction of aqueous humor or ablockage of the scleral venous sinus
What are the three regions of the ear?
the outer, middle and inner ear
Pinna (auricle)
outer portion of ear (pinnae pl.)
External Auditory Meatus
canal that runs from pinna to the tympanic Membrane
cartilage flap which protects the external auditory meatus
upper curved area of the pinna
fatty tissue without any cartilage
Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
thin membrane that separates the middle ear fromthe outer ear, it vibrates when sound waves reach it
– along with hairs helps to prevent foreign substances fromentering the ear and damaging the tympanic membrane
Middle Ear
air filled cavity between the outer ear and the inner ear
ear bones (malleus, incus, and stapes)
Eustachian tube (Auditory tube)
– tube that connects middle ear with throat (allowsequalization of air pressure on either side of the tympanic membrane)
Inner ear
located within temporal bone the inner ear contains: semicircular canals,vestibule, and cochlea
Semicircular Canals
three canals that lie at right angles to each other which haveexpanded bases called ampullae. The receptors of the semicircular canalsprovide sensations of rotation.
contains two membranous sacs (the utricle and saccule) that are involvedin equilibrium, sensations of gravity and linear acceleration
coiled (snail shaped) structure involved with hearing. The cochlea is dividedby the vestibular membrane and the basilar membrane into three channels: thescala media, scala vestibuli and the scala tympani.
Hair Cells
– basic receptors of the inner ear that provide information about thedirection and strength of varied mechanical stimuli.
What are the receptors of light touch?
Tactile (Merkel’s) Discs, Free Nerve Endings, Tactile (Meissner’s) Corpuscles
What are the receptors for light pressure, (whichare located deeper than those for lighttouch)
Root Hair Plexus, Lamellated (Pacinian) Corpuscles, Ruffini Corpuscle
Olfactory receptors
modified neurons with cilia extending from their surfaces.They are found in the nasal epithelium on either side of the nasal septum
chemicals that stimulate olfactory receptors; the are small organicmolecules. The strongest smells are associated with molecules of high water and lipidsolubilities.
Olfactory glands (Bowman’s glands)
absorb water and form mucus. In thecortex, nerve impulses from the olfactory tract are interpreted as odor and give riseto the sensation of smell.
olfactory fatigue
we become accustomed to some odors and adapt to them rather quickly.
Taste (gustatory) receptors
Sensory structures called taste buds formed from receptors and specialized epithelial cells
What are the three forms of papillae found on the tongue?
filiform papillae,fungiform papillae and circumvallate papillae
Filiform papillae
don’t contain any tastebuds but function to provide friction against objects in the mouth
Fungiform papillae
Contain about 5 taste buds
circumvallate papillae
contain about 100 taste buds
What 4 main tastes are taste buds sensitive to and where do we taste them?
Sweet, salty, bitter and sour.

sides, tip, or posteriorareas of the tongue.